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SOLUTION-FOCUSED BRIEF THERAPY EVALUATION LIST –  18/11/15

More than 2300 publications annually.  Currently 5 meta-analyses; 6 systematic reviews; 219 relevant outcome studies including 82 randomised controlled trials showing benefit from solution-focused approaches with 54 showing benefit over existing treatments.  Of 69 comparison studies, 53 favour sft.  Effectiveness data are also available from over 8000 cases with a success rate exceeding 60%; requiring an average of 3 – 6.5 sessions of therapy time. 

Approved by US Federal Government: www.samhsa.gov; SAMHSA - The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP). State of Washington; State of Oregon www.oregon.gov/DHS; State of Texas is examining evidence.  Minnesota, Michigan and California have organisations using SF.  Finland has a Master’s degree in SFT and Singapore has an approved accreditation programme.  Canada has a registration body for practitioners and therapists.  Sweden, Poland, Germany and Austria recognise it within their systemic practice qualification.  Wales (UK) includes it in their primary mental health programme.

Many recent publications were in Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Korean and Turkish.  By 2014 there were 180 publications in Mandarin ((including 60 from Taiwan) as against 45 in 2009.  So this evaluation list confirms the value of the model but is no longer sufficient in itself.

META-ANALYSES

Kim JS (2008). Examining the effectiveness of solution-focused brief therapy: A meta-analysis. Research on Social Work Practice 18:107-116.  22 studies; many factors examined.  Small effects in favour of sft; best for personal behaviour change, effect size estimate .26 (sig. p<.05).  Thus sft is equivalent to other therapies. (Dissertation: Examining the Effectiveness of Solution-focused Brief Therapy: A Meta-Analysis Using Random Effects Modeling. University of Michigan database.  Up to 6.5 sessions required. Competence in sft requires >20 hours of training?)   (johnny.kim@du.edu)

Kim JS, Franklin C, Zhang Y, Liu X, Qu Y, Chen H (2015). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy in China: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 24(3):187-201.  113 studies: experimental / quasi-experimental design; Chinese language and publication; internalizing problems.  9 eligible studies; random effects meta-analysis: SFBT effective, effect sizes ranging from g = 0.49 to 3.22.  Pooled effect size estimates strongly favor SFBT (g = 1.26; P<0.001). Implications for the use of SFBT among ethnic minority populations are discussed.  DOI:10.1080/15313204.2014.991983

Park Jung-im (2014) Meta-analysis of the effect of the solution-focused group counseling program for elementary school students. Journal of the Korea Contents Association 14(11): 476-485. URL: http://www.dbpia.co.kr/Article/3535871.  Master`s theses, doctoral dissertations, and journal articles published in Korea up to May 2014 were systematically reviewed. 20 studies were eligible for the inclusion criteria. The mean effect sizes and test for homogeneity of effect size (Q-statistic) were analyzed by using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software 2.0. Main findings: average effect sizes for Solution Focused Group Counseling Program were ES 1.61 in self-esteem, ES 1.35 in school adjustment capacity, ES 1.07 in interpersonal relationship and ES 1.03 in self-efficacy.  Moderating variables were focus on self-esteem and sessions of one hour.

Stams GJJ, Dekovic M, Buist K, de Vries L (2006) Effectiviteit van oplossingsgerichte korte therapie: een meta-analyse (Efficacy of solution focused brief therapy: a meta-analysis).  Gedragstherapie 39(2):81-95.  (Dutch; abstract in English).    21 studies; many factors examined.  Small to medium effect size 0.37; better than no treatment; as good as other treatments.  Best results for personal behaviour change, adults, residential / group settings.  Recent studies show strongest effects.  Shorter than other therapies; respects client autonomy.  (G.J.J.M.Stams@uva.nl)  (Short version of Stams 2006 and Kim 2008 in Franklin C, Trepper T, Gingerich WJ, McCollum E. (eds) Solution-focused Brief Therapy: A Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice. Oxford University Press: New York 2011.)

Gong H, Hsu WS (2015) A Meta-analysis on the Effectiveness of Solution-focused Brief Therapy: Evidences from Mainland and Taiwan. Studies of Psychology and Behaviors (CSSCI) (in press).  33 studies, total 1147 participants. The results showed that: (1) large positive treatment effects favoring SFBT groups.  Overall mean effect size estimate  at end .99 with overall mean effect size estimate for follow-up 1.07.  No significant correlation for year of publication. (3) Overall mean effect size estimates large in mainland (d=1.03) and in Taiwan (d=.92). (4) Overall mean effect size estimates of SFBT were large in school settings (d=1.01) and in medical settings (d=.94). Similar results found for different problems. The results revealed that SFBT not only can solve client’s problems but also improve client’s ability to solve problems by himself. More studies are needed to examining the effectiveness of SFBT for externalizing behavior problems.  (weisuhsu@ntnu.edu.tw)  (Mandarin)

SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS

Bond C, Woods K, Humphrey N, Symes W, Green L (2013) The effectiveness of solution focused brief therapy with children and families: a systematic and critical evaluation of the literature from 1990–2010.  Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12058.
38 studies included: 9 applied SFBT to internalizing child behaviour problems, 3 applied SFBT to both internalizing and externalizing child behaviour problems, 15 applied the approach to externalizing child behaviour problems and 9 evaluated the application of SFBT in relation to a range of other issues.  Provides tentative support for the use of SFBT; particularly effective as an early intervention when presenting problems are not severe.

Corcoran J, Pillai V (2007) A review of the research on solution-focused therapy.  British Journal of Social Work 10:1-9.  10 quasi-experimental studies, all in English: included on the basis of: statistics / design / follow-up / numbers.  Only 2 follow-up studies.  Moderate or high effect size in 4 studies.  Are qualified workers better than students?  (jcorcora@vcu.edu)

Gingerich WJ, Eisengart S (2000) Solution focused brief therapy: a review of the outcome research.  Family Process 39:477-498.  Fifteen outcome studies: 5 strong, 4 moderately strong, 6 weak. (Updated version: www.gingerich.net). (wallace.gingerich@case.edu)

Gingerich WJ, Peterson LT (2013) Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Controlled Outcome Studies.  Research on Social Work Practice 23(3): 266-283.  All available controlled outcome studies of SFBT: 43 studies were abstracted: 32  (74%) of the studies reported significant positive benefit from SFBT; 10 (23%) reported positive trends. The strongest evidence of effectiveness came in the treatment of depression in adults where four separate studies found SFBT to be comparable to well-established alternative treatments. Three studies examined length of treatment and all found SFBT used fewer sessions than alternative therapies. The studies reviewed provide strong evidence that SFBT is an effective treatment for a wide variety of behavioral and psychological outcomes and it may be briefer and therefore less costly than alternative approaches. (http://rsw.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/01/22/1049731512470859)
DOI: 10.1177/1049731512470859

Kim JS, Franklin C (2009) Solution-focused brief therapy in schools: A review of the outcome literature. Children and Youth Services Review 31(4): 464-470.  An extension of Kim (2008) examining 7 studies of sft in school settings.  This review suggest that sft may be effectively applied with at-risk students in a school setting, specifically helping to reduce the intensity of negative feelings and to manage conduct problems and externalizing behavioral problems.  Age ranges for applications in schools appeared flexible, from 5th graders to older children and adolescents.

Lovelock H, Matthews R, Murphy K (2011) Evidence-based psychological interventions in the treatment of mental disorders: a literature review.  Australian Psychological Association http://www.psychology.org.au/Assets/Files/Evidence-Based-Psychological-Interventions.pdf.  SFBT shows Level II effectiveness for depression, anxiety and substance misuse.

PUBLISHED FOLLOW-UP STUDIES (219):

RANDOMISED CONTROLLED STUDIES (82)

Ahramian A, Ahmadi A, Shamseddinilory S, Yousefi S, Abdolahi S, Soudani M, Ghazi G (2014) The effectiveness of group training of solution-focused approach on marriage adjustment of couples that call on Bushehr family counseling centers. (Iran) Terapevticheskii Arkhiv 86(1s).  Couples; randomised; 22 exp sf groups / 22 controls.  Exp significant improvement in marital adjustment. (Persian)

Amiri E, Karshky IH, Asghari M (2014) The effectiveness of a solution based on a public health advisory single parent high school boys.  Journal of Psychological Methods and Models 15(4): 37-58.  30 first year boys; random 15 exp 7 group sess; 15 controls no treatment.  Significant increase in general health; no effect on social withdrawal. (Persian) (amirieb@chmail.ir)

Attari Y, Mohammadi K, Mehrabizadeh Honarmand M. (2009) A study of solution–focused training in group counseling on increasing marital adjustment.  Journal of Psychological Achievements (Journal of Education & Psychology) 4(1): 51-66.  30 couples randomly selected from 43 attending.  15 exp sft; 15 controls no treatment.  Improved marital adjustment in exp group. (Persian)

Azra T, Ahmadi A, Vahideh U (2014) The Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling and Solution-Oriented Counseling on Women's Sexual Satisfaction in Isfahan.  Journal of Women and Society 19(5): 67-83.  Random; 45 women divided into 2 exp group: 6 sess sf; and control group: 8 sess CBT.  Post test both improved women's sexual satisfaction (p<0.01) but CBT was more effective. (Persian)  (Fatehizade@gmail.com)

Baldry E, Bratel J, Dunsire M, Durrant M (2005) Keeping Children with a Disability Safely in their Families.  Practice: Social Work in Action 17(3):143-156. DOI:10.1080/09503150500285099  55 care-givers from 40 families in crisis; family-centred intervention programmes (Australia). Objective measures: empowerment, emotional support, parent–child involvement, abuse potential, family functioning, symptom reduction, hope, happiness and worker–client alliance; also qualitative interviews. Significant improvement in abuse potential and emotional support at 6 mon and 12 mon (P<0.001).  Symptom reduction and emotional support predicted 86% of variance at 12 mon.  Helpful: wholly attentive listening, support, increased parent control/empowerment, validation and maintaining a strengths focus; programmes being family-focused, having 24 hours/phone availability, being home-based, with small case-loads, financial support and a consistency of worker. (e.baldry@unsw.edu.au)

Bakhshipour, B, Aryan SK, Karami A, Farrokhi N (2011) The effectiveness of solution-focused therapy on reducing behavioral problems of the elementary and brief therapy and high school students at Sari. Counseling Research And Development 10(37):7-24.  Pre-test and post-test on 16 elementary and 16 high school students,City of Sari; randomly selected; assigned in 2 exp and 2 control groups. Children received 8 x 1 hr wkly sessions; adolescents 8 x 1.5 hr wkly sessions. Results indicate that the solution-focused therapy method was effective in reducing the behavioral problems (externalizing) of children and adolescents. (Persian)

Boyer BE, Geurts HM, Prins PJM, Van der Oord S (2014) Two novel CBTs for adolescents with ADHD: the value of planning skills. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 24(9):1075-1090. DOI:10.1007/s00787-014-0661-5.  159 adolescents (12-17 yrs) with ADHD; random; planning skills training or SFT.  Motivational Interviewing elements in both. 3 mon follow-up:parent-rated ADHD, planning problems and executive functioning, neuropsychological measures of planning, comorbid symptoms, general functioning and teacher measures. Significant improvement; large effect sizes on all domains. Marginally significant differences were found in favor of the planning-focused treatment: parents and therapists evaluated this treatment more positively than SFT.  (saskia.vanderoord@ppw.kuleuven.be)

Boyer BE, Geurts HM, Prins PJ, Van der Oord S (2015). One-year follow-up of two novel CBTs for adolescents with ADHD. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 1-5. doi:10.​1007/​s00787-015-0776-3  1-year follow-up: 25.9 % of adolescents showed normalized functioning; no difference between groups.  So focusing on planning skills is not necessary for improvement or more prolonged planning-focused treatment is needed.

Choesujin, Johyeonchun (2015). Solution - Focused Therapy Program literary effects on self-concept and hopes the promotion of junior high school students. Literature for Therapeutic Research, 5(1):43-66.  www.newnonmun.com/article=192302 Middle school: random: 12 exp 10 x literature therapy groups; 12 controls no intervention.  Self-concept and hope improved at 5 wk follow-up in exp group.  (Korean)

Cockburn JT, Thomas FN, Cockburn OJ (1997) Solution-focused therapy and psychosocial adjustment to orthopedic rehabilitation in a work hardening program.  Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 7:97-106. 25 exp: 6 sft sess vs 23 controls: standard rehabilitation.  68% exp at work within 7 days at 60-day follow-up vs 4% controls.  (f.thomas@tcu.edu)

Daki J, Savage RS (2010) Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: Impacts on Academic and Emotional Difficulties. Journal of Education Research 103: 309-326.  7 exp received 5 sf groups; 7 controls: academic support only.  Significantly larger effect size on 26/38 measures in exp; only 10/38 in controls.

Dastbaz A, Younesi SJ, Moradi O, Ebrahimi M (2014) The Effect of "Solution-Focused" Group Counseling on Adjustment and Self-Efficacy of High School Male Students in Shahriar City.  Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology 15(1) (Continuous No. 55): 90-98. Male high school in Tehran; Random; 30 students; exp 8x90 min sess  / controls no treatment.  SF group counseling increased overall adjustment and self- efficacy (P<0.01). Emotional factors: no significant difference. http://journals.khuisf.ac.ir/jsr-p/browse.php?a_code=A-10-914-1&slc_lang=en&sid=1
(Persian)

Davrnya R, Zahrakar K (2015) The effectiveness of short-term solution-focused therapy to reduce stress on marital stress.  Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences of the twenty-second, attachments, 9 Shahrivar 93(18). 20 women referred to mental health service with marital problems in Bojnoord, Iran; randomly allocated to test and control groups; Stockholm-Tehran Marital Stress Scale (STMSS) before and 1 mon after 6 group sessions. short-term, solution-focused therapy, marital stress in women significantly reduce the amount of data .ast meaning as in (F = 25/721, P <0.001) and tracking (F = 23/545, P < 0.001) (Persian) (rezadavarniya@yahoo.com)

Fanaei Z, Gorji Y, Reza Abedi M (2014) The Effect of Solution-Focused Group Counseling on Internal Motivation of Students of Islamic Azad University of Khomeini Shahr 2012-2014.  International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research. 3 (SP): 207-211.  Available online: http://www.isicenter.org.  Randomised: 12 exp: 7 sess group sf / 12 controls usual counseling.  Intrinsic motivation of sf group increased (P<0.01).  (Persian) (Zohreh.Fanaei@iaukhsh.ac.ir)
Farhady, M., Ahramian, A., Nooralizadeh, M. and Sudani, M (2014) The Effectiveness of Group Training of Solution-focused Approach in Happiness of Couples. J. Life Sci. Biomed4(5):395-400.  Iran: 230 couples; 92 scored less than 40-42 in Revised Oxford Happiness Inventory; randomly divided 22 exp / 22 controls.  7 group sess over 2 months; controls no intervention.  1 mon follow-up.  Sig improvement in exp group.  Appears that SF was used in a directive fashion. (Persian)  (Farhady.a@gm)

Froeschle JG, Smith RL, Ricard R (2007) The Efficacy of a Systematic Substance Abuse Program for Adolescent Females.  Professional School Counseling 10:498-505.  32 exp / 33 controls; pre-test post-test design.  16 wkly sft group / action learning / mentoring.  Drug use, attitudes to use, knowledge of drugs, home and school behaviour all improved significantly.  (jefroeschle@msn.com)

Gitipasand Z, Arian Kh, Karami Abou Alfazl (2008) The effect of group counseling using solution-focused therapy procedure on reduction of mother-daughter conflicts. Counseling research and development 7(27): 63-80. 24 of 36 student volunteers randomised to 12 exp: 8 sf groups / 12 control no treatment.  Mother-daughter conflicts decreased in exp group. (Persian)

Golmohamadi M, Kimiyaee SA (2015) The Effectiveness of Group Counseling Based on Solution-Therapy Focused on Academic Motivation among High School Student with Under Achievement. Research in Education 1(2):55-62. Male students, underachieving; randomised; 15 exp 8 sess sf groups; 15 controls no intervention.   Effective in increasing academic motivation.  (Persian)

Grant AM, Curtayne L, Burton G (2009) Executive coaching enhances goal attainment, resilience and workplace well-being: a randomised controlled study.  J Positive Psychology, 4(5): 396-407.  Training workshop for 41 executives; Group 1 (20): cbt/sf coaching at once; Group 2 (21): 10 week wait before coaching.  Enhanced goal attainment, resilience and workplace well-being; reduced depression and stress once each group had completed the programme.  (anthonyg@psych.usyd.edu.au)

Grant AM (2012) Making Positive Change: A Randomized Study Comparing Solution-Focused vs. Problem-Focused Coaching Questions.  J Systemic Therapies 31(2): 21-35.  Random: real problem and set a goal. Measures: positive and negative affect, self-efficacy, goal attainment. 108 participants:  problem-focused coaching questions; 117 participants: solution-focused questions including future-oriented question; then second set of measures. Both effective in enhancing goal approach; solution-focused group significantly greater increases in goal approach, positive affect, decreased negative affect, and increased self-efficacy; and generated significantly more action steps to help them reach their goal. Although real-life coaching conversations are not solely solution-focused or solely problem-focused, agents of change should aim for a solution-focused theme.

Green LS, Grant AM, Rynsaardt J (2007) Evidence-based life coaching for senior high school students: building hardiness and hope.’  International Coaching Psychology Review,  2: 24-32.  Randomised: 25 exp; 10 individual coaching sessions over 28 wks/ 24 controls; no treatment.  Students; ‘ no significant disability; volunteered for program.  Exp: standard measures: improve on hope, hardiness, depression but not stress or anxiety.  

Green LS, Norrish JM, Vella-Brodrick DA, Grant AM (2013) Enhancing well- being and goal striving in senior high school students: Comparing evidence-based coaching and positive psychology interventions.  InstituteofCoaching.org (Melbourne, Australia) 1 Dec 2013.  73 senior students (male and female) from two selective high schools, Sydney, Australia randomly assigned for ten weeks. 25 cognitive-behavioural, solution focused coaching; 25 Positive Psychology intervention; 24 controls. PPI led to increases in mental well-being, CB-SF coaching increased academic goal striving; no effects were maintained at 9 mon follow-up.

Harris  MB, Franklin C (2009)  Helping Adolescent Mothers to Achieve in School: An Evaluation of the Taking Charge Group Intervention.  Children and Schools 31(1): 27-34.  Randomised, 33 exp / 40 comparison.  Taking Charge group programme added to usual school.  Significant post-test improvement in attendance, grades, social problem-solving and coping.  Less drop out:3%/20%.  (Two smaller studies (n=46, n=23) replicate these findings).  (CFranklin@mail.utexas.edu)

Ho Hung, Wu Jingjing, Zhang Xiaoyi, Zhang Jing, Liuyun Yun (2014) Effect of Solution Focused Approach Model on Metabolic Parameters of Patients with T2DM. Chinese General Practice 35. doi:10.3969 / j.issn.1007-9572.2014.35.014. Type 2 diabetes: randomised: 60 exp SFT; 60 controls usual education.  6 mon follow-up: body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FBG), 2 h postprandial glucose (2 hPBG), total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), incidence rate of hypoglycemia. After intervention, TC and LDL between the two group had no statistical significance (P> 0 05); BMI, SBP, DBP, HbA1c, FBG, 2 hPBG, TG and the incidence rate of hypoglycemia in exp were lower than control group; HDL was higher (P <0. 05).  (Mandarin)

Hossieni Tayyebeh, Amiri Majd Mojtaba, Ghamari Mohammad (2013) The effectiveness of solution-focused group counseling in enhancing marital intimacy of married women.  Family Health 1(4):53-63.  Married female teachers; random 12 exp: 8 sf group sess / 12 controls: no treatment.  Intimacy measure; overall marital intimacy and in intimacy dimensions improved at post-treatment. (Persian)

Hsu WS, Chen YF, Sun STM, Wu CY, Cheng HC (2009) A Study of Working Alliance, Counselor’s Effectiveness, and Client’s Satisfaction of Solution-focused Real-Time Webcounseling on Taiwanese College Students. Bulletin of Southern Taiwan University 34 (2), 57-70.  Real-time webcounseling designed by Information Management of National Chi Nan University, Taiwan. 3 counselors trained.  Randomised: 8 students sf; 10 students non-sf; 1-6 weekly sess.  Pre-post measures:  better scores for alliance and effectiveness after 1st sess for sf.  Exp group significantly higher scores for counselor effectiveness and client satisfaction, not alliance.  (weisuhsu@ntnu.edu.tw)

Javanmini L, Kimiaee SA, Abadi BAGH (2013) The Study of Solution-Focused Group Counseling in Decreasing Depression among Teenage Girls. International Journal of Psychological Studies 5:1 doi:10.5539/ijps.v5n1p105.  All teenage girls in Sahneh, Iran: 20 girls chosen by stratified random sampling and then randomly assigned to exp and control groups. BDI before and after 8 sessions group counseling vs ‘irrelevant’ skills teaching; again 1 mon after.  Reduction in BDI score significant 0.01 at follow-up.  (Persian)  (alma_javan@yahoo.com)

Jiwon, Gimhyeongmo (2015) The Effects of Solution-focused Group Art Therapy on School Life Adjustment of the Maladjusted Adolescents.  Journal of the Korea Contents Association15(5): 661-673.  Randomised 20 students with difficulties to adapt to middle school.  Exp 10: 12 sess sf group art therapy / control 10 no treatment; improved adaptation at post-test.  (Korean) (www.dbpia.co.kr/Article/3679218)

Joker H, Ghaderi Z. (2015). Effectiveness of a solution-based counseling on students self-perception. Educational Research and Reviews, 10(15), 2141-2145. High school students; random; 15 exp 30 sess group counseling / 15 controls no input.  Self-perception questionaire 1 mon after: increased self-perception and self-esteem.   DOI: 10.5897/ERR2015.2332 (Persian)

Karami K, Nazari AN, Zahrakar K (2012)  The effects of group solution-focused counseling on reducing parent-child conflict in adolescents.  Biannual Journal of Applied Counselling 3(1): 77-92.  180 students; 30 selected as one SD above mean on Conflict Tactics Scale.  Random 15 exp: 8 x 90 min group sess; 15 controls.  Post-test significant reduction in physical and verbal aggression and reasoning ability.  (Persian) (karamikhabat22@yahoo.com)

King, Z, Reza A (2014) The effectiveness of training solution-focused approach to increasing the level of social adjustment of adolescent identity crisis.  Journal of Women and Society 17.5 (2014): 21-40.  Random; 20 exp  sf training / 20 controls no training.  ‘Significant improvement’ in social adjustment at post-test. (Persian) (aoji62@yahoo.com)

Knekt P, Lindfors O (2004)  A randomized trial of the effect of four forms of psychotherapy on depressive and anxiety disorders: design, methods and results on the effectiveness of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and solution-focused therapy during a one-year follow-up.  Studies in social security and health, no. 77. The Social Insurance Institution, Helsinki, Finland.  Randomised comparison study; 93 sft / 98 short-term psychotherapy; problems >1 yr.  Sft 43% (mood), 26% (anxiety) recovery at 7 mon maintained at 12 mon; short-term 43%, 35%; no significant difference between therapies but sft faster for depression; short-term better for ‘personality disorder’.  Avg sft 10 sess over 7.5 mon; short-term 15 sess over 5.7 mon.  No figures for partial recovery; no apparent social class difference. (www.kela.fi/research)

Knekt P, Lindfors O, Härkänen T, Välikoski M, Virtala E, Laaksonen MA et al. (2008). Randomized trial on the effectiveness of long-and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and solution-focused therapy on psychiatric symptoms during a 3-year follow-up. Psychological Medicine, 38, 689-703. 326 psychiatric outpatients with mood or anxiety disorders randomly assigned to sft (10 sessions over 7.5 months), short-tem psychodynamic therapy (18.5 sessions over 5.7 months) or long-term psychodynamic therapy (232 sessions over 31,3 months). All three treatments were effective, but auxiliary treatments frequent. At 3-year follow-up, effect sizes for sf .81-.87 for depression and .60-.80 for anxiety symptoms. Short-term psychodynamic produced greater depression and anxiety reduction than long-term during first year; sf more depression reduction than long-term during first year. At 3 years, the improvements of both brief therapies still persisted; long-term psychodynamic patients (undergoing continuing therapy) kept improving and outperformed the brief therapies on anxiety, not on depression.

Knekt P, Lindfors O, Virtala E, Härkänen T, Sares-Jäske L, Laaksonen MA (2012)The effectiveness of short- and long-term psychotherapy during a 7-year follow-up.  European Psychiatry 27, Supplement 1,1-x. 326 cases; long (7 yr) follow-up.  A reduction in psychiatric symptoms and improvement in work ability and functional capacity was noted in all treatment groups. The short-term therapies were more effective than long-term psychotherapy during the first year, whereas long-term therapy more effective after 3 yrs follow-up. No notable differences in symptoms or working ability were observed between long- and short-term therapies during the last 4 years of follow-up. A total of 80% of the patients in short-term groups and 60% in long-term  group used auxiliary treatment.  Psychoanalysis was the most effective at 5-year follow-up.  Cost-efficiency analysis including social and unemployment costs showed that long-term therapy cost three times as much.

Knekt P, Heinonen E, Harkapaa K, Jarvikoski A, Virtala E, Rissanen J, Lindfors O, Helsinki Psychotherapy Study Group (2015)  Randomized trial on the effectiveness of long- and short-term psychotherapy on psychosocial functioning and quality of life during a 5-year follow-up.  Psychiatry Research 229(1-2):381–388. 326 outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder: randomized to SFT, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) or long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LPP); 5 yr follow-up from the start of treatment.  Short-term therapies improved psychosocial functioning and quality of life more than LPP during the first year; optimism and perceived competence did not differ  between therapies. Later sense of coherence and perceived competence showed significantly more improvement in LPP than in short-term therapies. No direct differences between SFT and SPP were noted.

Ko M-J, Yu S-J, Kim Y-G (2003). The effects of solution-focused group counseling on the stress response and coping strategies in the delinquent juveniles. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi (Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing; Korean), 33(3), 440-450.   15-18 yr olds on probation. Random, 30 exp 6 sess weekly / 30 control no treat.  Better problem coping in exp. (Korean) (Yusook@catholic.ac.kr)

Kokkvoll A, Grimsgaard S, Odegaard R, Flaegstad T, Njolstad I.  Single versus multiple-family intervention in childhood overweight—Finnmark Activity School: a randomised trial.  Arch Dis Child doi:10.1136/archdischild-2012-303571  97 overweight children aged 6–12 yrs with body mass index (BMI) ≥27.5.  Randomised to multiple-family intervention (MUFI) or single-family intervention (SIFI); SF in both interventions.  MUFI: 3-day inpatient, follow-up visits, organised physical activity x2 weekly and a 4-day family camp. SIFI: individual counselling and follow-up by nurse.  Interim analysis after 12 months showed no between-group difference in terms of BMI or BMI SDS. The MUFI group had a significant decrease in waist circumference compared to the SIFI group.
 
Kramer J, Conijn B, Oijevaar P, Riper H (2014)  Effectiveness of a Web-Based Solution-Focused Brief Chat Treatment for Depressed Adolescents and Young Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial.  J Medical Internet Research16(5):e141. doi:10.2196/jmir.3261  Random; 263 aged 12-22 yrs; depressive symptoms;131 exp Web-based sft PratenOnline / 132 waitlist controls.  Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at 9 wks, 4.5 mon, 7.5 mon.  Exp significant improvement in symptoms at 9 wks and in depression at 4.5 mon: 28.2% vs 11.4%, p<.001. Exp further improvement at 7.5 mon; controls not contacted.  (jkramer@trimbos.nl)

Li Yuee,  Zhou Jinfang, Deng Yunshan, Wu Yaofan, Liang Lin (2015)  Application of solution-focused approach in the psychological intervention of chronic prostatitis patients.  Chinese Journal of Human Sexuality (3).  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-1993.2015.03.038  Random; 54 exp sf nursing / education; 54 controls TAU. SF-36 and HAD scales; significant improvement in scores and quality of life at 6 mon follow-up.  (Mandarin)

Liang Guang-mei, Pei Jin-fei, Bao Wen-qing (2014)  Effectiveness Study of Solution Focused Mode on the Rehabilitation among Young and Middle-aged Patients with First-episode Schizophrenia.  Hospital Management Forum 11. Random: 40 exp sf health education / 40 controls routine follow-up care.  Scores of all scales of treatment group significantly decreased on discharge and 6 mon later (p < 0.05). (Mandarin)

Lindfors O, Knekt P, Heinonen E, Harkanen T, Virtala E, Helsinki Psychotherapy Study Group (2014) The effectiveness of short- and long-term psychotherapy on personality functioning during a 5-year follow-up. Journal of Affective Disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.039.  Random; 326 patients: SFT (n=97) / short-term psychodynamic (n=101) / long-term (avg 3 yr) psychodynamic (LPP; n=128).  Personality functioning improved in all therapy groups at 5 yr follow-up. Both short-term therapies fared better during first year of follow-up. SFT showed more early reduction of interpersonal problems. LPP outperformed SFT at the end of follow-up after adjustment for auxiliary treatment. No differences were noted between the short-term therapies at any point.  Auxiliary treatment was used relatively widely which limits generalization to exclusive use of short- or long-term therapy. (olavi.lindfors@thl.fi)

Lindforss L, Magnusson D (1997)  Solution-focused therapy in prison.  Contemporary Family Therapy 19:89-104.  2 randomised studies: (1) Pilot study 14/21 (66%) exp. and 19/21(90%) controls reoffended at 20 mon.  (2) 30 exp; 29 controls; 16 mon follow-up.  18 (60%) reoffend in exp., 25 (86%) in control; more drug offences and more total offences in controls.   Avg 5 sess; 2.7 million Swedish crowns saved by reduced reoffending. (lindforss@chello.se; dan.magnusson@brottsforebygganderadet.se)

Liu Fen, Deng Aihui, Wang Huirong et al (2014)  Application of solution-focused approach in mental nursing of pregnant women with ante-natal anxiety.  Chinese Nursing Research 28: 5A: 1572-1575.  Pregnancy with high anxiety scores: randomised: 40 exp: sf approach / 40 controls: TAU.  Significantly less anxiety (P<0.01) pre-post and in comparison with controls. Improvements (P<0.01) in mode of delivery, Apgar score, pain, bleeding and lactation for exp. (Mandarin)

Ma Jianmin (2015) Focus-solving model used in patients with chronic health. Education Management  Journal of Clinical Nursing 4.  Doi: 10.3969 / j.issn.1671-8933.2015.04.017  Chronic hepatitis B; random: 50 exp sf health education / 50 controls routine education.  Knowledge significantly increased post-test; liver function improved.  (Mandarin)

Mache S, Vitzthum K, Klapp BF, Groneberg DA (2015) Evaluation of a Multicomponent Psychosocial Skill Training Program for Junior Physicians in Their First Year at Work: A Pilot Study.  Family Medicine 47(9):693-698.  82 German junior physicians; random; 41 exp resilience / CBT / sf counseling; 41 no intervention.  3 mon follow-up: significant improvement on measures of resilience, self-efficacy, optimism and perceived stress.  Job satisfaction did not change.

Maljanen T, Knekt P, Lindfors O, Virtala E, Tillman P, Härkänen T, & Helsinki Psychotherapy Study Group (2015) The cost-effectiveness of short-term and long-term psychotherapy in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders during a 5-year follow-up. Journal of Affective Disorders. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.09.065 326 outpatients suffering from mood or anxiety disorder; randomized to SFT, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy or long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LPP). 8 measures including direct and indirect costs; statistically significant improvements were observed in all groups at follow-up. At first recovery faster in short-term therapy groups but the effectiveness of the LPP was somewhat greater than short-term therapies. The direct costs were much higher so long-term therapy can hardly be regarded as cost-effective compared to short-term therapies.  (timo.maljanen@kela.fi)

Mao Yu-jie (2013)  Application of solution focused approach in psychological intervention for underage girls undergoing abortion.  Chinese Journal of Modern Nursing 19:28.  Pregnant underage girls randomly divided: 60 exp (SF) / 60 controls (conventional nursing).  Significant difference in SCL-90 scores for exp at 4 wks. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1674-2907.2013.28.015 

McGarry J, McNicholas F, Buckley H, Kelly BD, Atkin L, Ross N (2008) The clinical effectiveness of a brief consultation and advisory approach compared to treatment as usual in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 13(3):365-376. Randomised: 30 children 3-session brief consultation; 30 treatment as usual.  Exp group sustained improvement at 6 mon and less dissatisfaction with wait times.

Nameni Ebrahim, Shafi Abadi Abdollah, Delavar Ali, Ahmadi Khodabakhsh (2014) The effectiveness of combination of structural and Solution-focused family therapy in treatment of the substance abuse and the family function improvement.  Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences 21(1): 155-163. Tehran: randomised study: 30 families: 15 exp, 15 control.  Combined structural and sft; 80% use reduced at post test (p<0.0001); 66% reduced use at 6 mon (p<0.0001).

Neipp M-C, Beyebach M, Nunez RM, Martinez-Gonzalez M-C (2015) The effect of solution-focused versus problem-focused questions: a replication. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. doi: 10.1111/jmft.12140  Replicates Grant 2012. Random: real problem and set a goal. Measures: positive and negative affect, self-efficacy, goal attainment. 102 problem-focused coaching questions / 102 solution-focused questions including the Miracle Question. Problem-focused questions no impact on either positive or negative affect, solution-focused questions reduced negative effect significantly. Self-efficacy and goal approach significantly better in sf group.  (neipp@goumh.umh.es)

Nystuen P, Hagen KB (2006)  Solution-focused intervention for sick-listed employees with psychological problems or muscle skeletal pain: a randomised controlled trial.  BMC Public Health 6:69-77.  Long-term sickness: 53 exp / 50 controls; 8 sess; 1 yr follow-up.  No significant difference in return to work; mental health scores significantly improved.  Authors question sample size and chosen measures.  (pal@psykologbistand.no; kare.hagen@diakonsyk.no)

Pennapha Napa (2015) The consultant theory emphasizes short-term solution to reflect their inner thoughts of employees.  Burapha University Journal Online 25(3).  Random: 9 workers 6 sf groups / 9 controls.  Significantly more self-reflection in exp group at follow-up (P<0.05).  (Thai)

Priebe S, Kelley L, Omer S, Golden E, Walsh S, Khanom H, Kingdon D, Rutterford C, McCrone P, McCabe R. (2015) The effectiveness of a patient-centred assessment with a solution focused approach (DIALOG+) for patients with psychosis - a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial in community care. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics.DIALOG+: computer-mediated intervention:structured assessment of patients’ concerns combined with solution-focused approach. Cluster-randomised controlled trial: 49 community clinicians / 179 patients randomised to use DIALOG+ once per month for six months or active control. Subjective quality of life (SQOL) and secondary outcomes assessed after 3/6/12 months by blinded assessors.  Implementation of DIALOG+ was variable with avg 1.8 sessions (SD=1.6) in first 3 mon and 1.1 (SD=1.2) in next 3 mon. Patients in the DIALOG+ arm had better SQOL at three, six, and 12 months (p=0.035, 0.058, 0.014, respectively; Cohen’s d=0.29-0.34). Significantly fewer unmet needs at 3 and 6 mon; fewer general psychopathological symptoms at all time-points; better objective social outcomes at 12 months, with no significant differences on other outcomes. Overall care costs lower in the intervention group.  http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/376631/1/EPOS revised 27.03.2015.docx

Redžep, L, Beersma B, Theeboom T (2014) The Implications of Self-Kindness for the Effectiveness of Coaching: Self-Compassion Moderates the Impact of Solution- vs. Problem-Focused Coaching Questions on Action Planning.  Uni Amsterdam masterthesis: http://www.innovatiefinwerk.nl/search/node/redzep 118 students (83 females, 112 Dutch); mean age 21.44 yrs.  Randomly assigned to 2 (coaching questions focus: solution- vs. problem-focus) X 2 (self-compassion: low vs. high; students told to adopt one or other by researcher) factorial design. Only 72.8% achieved low self-compassion:results based on 86 students.  Problem-focus and high self-compassion interact helpfully; solution-focus worked for all. (ljerka.redzep@student.uva.nl)

Richmond CJ, Jordan SS, Bischof GH, Sauer, EM (2014). Effects of Solution-Focused Versus Problem-Focused Intake Questions on Pre-treatment Change. Journal of Systemic Therapies: Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 33-47.  doi: 10.1521/jsyt.2014.33.1.33. Two randomized studies: Study 1, clients completed either a standard written intake form with problem-focused questions or an SFBT Short Intake Form. Clients answering the solution-focused questions described significantly more solutions and significantly fewer problems than the comparison group. Study 2: SFBT intake interview with a DSM-based diagnostic intake interview. Clients in the SFBT intake interview improved significantly on the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ) before their first therapy session, whereas those in the diagnostic intake did not. Both studies demonstrated that intake procedures are not neutral and that strength-based questions have advantages, even leading to pre-treatment change.  (christopherrichmond@ferris.edu)

Saffarpoor S, Farahbakhsh, Kyoumars, Shafiabadi, Abdollah, Pashasharifi, Hasan (2013) A comparison between the effectiveness of solution-focused brief therapy and the quadripartite model of social competence and a fusion model of these two methods on increasing social adjustment of female students residing in Tehran dormitories. Journal of Applied Social Psychology DOI: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2013.01036.x   60 patients, randomised to 3 exp and 1 control groups. All 3 treatment methods were effective; no significant differences were observed between solution-focused and quadripartite model; combination model exhibited superior efficacy. (See also Counseling Research And Development 2011: 10(37):25-44) (Persian)

Schade, N., Torres, P. & Beyebach, M. (2011). Cost-efficiency of a brief family intervention for somatoform patients in primary care. Families, Systems, & Health, 29(3): 197-205. 256 somatoform patients from 7 Family Health Centers in Chile randomized to control (TAU) or exp (Brief Family Intervention, mainly sf). All staff of exp at least 40 hours of training in sf, MRI & externalization. BFI patients higher on consumer satisfaction than controls. BFI reduction in total health costs, cost of medication, of medical visits and of complementary medical analysis at termination and 1-year follow-up (all p< .005). Effect size of total cost reduction d= .80.  Average 3 sessions.

Shakarami, Mohammad, Reza Davarniya, Kianoush Zahrakar, Rezvaneh Talaeian (2015). Effectiveness of brief solution-focused group couple therapy on improving marital quality in women. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences 22 (131):1-13. 30 women visiting Hamyaran Salamat Ravan (mental health helpers) Institute in Bojnourd city in 2013 randomised to exp (7 x 90 min group sess) / controls no intervention.  Significant improvement in scores for exp at post-test and 4 wk follow-up. (Persian)

Shen Hou-mei (2014) Focusing on solving model in the application of psychological nursing in patients with vertigo syndrome.  Journal of Anhui Health Vocational & Technical College 5.  Randomised: 50 exp solution-focus / 50 controls routine care.  Depression and anxiety scores significantly better in sf group clients (P <0.05). (Mandarin)

Shih-Hsiu Su, Su Shi (2015) The Effects of Solution-Focused Group Counseling on Junior high school male Students of anger.  Randomised; 8 exp: 8 sess SF group counselling and 4 wk follow-up sess; 8 control no treatment.  Immediate decrease in anger and further improvement at follow-up.  (Taiwan; Mandarin) (http://dspace.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/handle/77345300/49975)

Shin S-K (2009) Effects of a Solution-Focused Program on the Reduction of Aggressiveness and the Improvement of Social Readjustment for Korean Youth Probationers.  Journal of Social Service Research 35( 3): 274 – 284.  Randomised: adolescents on probation: 20 exp 6 weekly group sessions / 20 control; indiv sess as requested.  Reduced aggression and increased social adjustment in exp at end of programme.  (Korean) (skshin2000@hotmail.com)

Smock SA, Trepper TS, Wetchler JL, McCollum EE, Ray R, Pierce K (2008)  Solution-focused group therapy for level 1 substance abusers.  Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 34(1):107–120.  Randomised: 27 exp: 6 wkly groups / 29 control: 6 wkly Hazelden program groups.  19 exp / 19 control completed; significant improvement in depression and symptom distress; dependence scores unchanged.  No follow-up.  (Sara.smock@ttu.edu)

Sodani Mansour, Shafiabady Abdollah, Etemadi Ahmad, Delavar Ali  (2009) Comparison of individual and conjoint solution-focused therapy for reducing family conflict in couples referred to Ahvaz counsel centers for problem disclosure.  Quarterly Educational Psychology 5(14):39-54. Randomised: 33 couples treated of 150 with marital problems. Some had individual therapy in groups, others had conjoint therapy.  Pre-post measures and comparison with controls. Equal benefit for both methods; sexual relationship improved more in individuals, finance in conjoint. (Persian)

Spence GB, Grant AM (2007) Professional and peer life coaching and the enhancement of goal striving and well-being: An exploratory study.  Journal of Positive Psychology,  2(3): 185–194.  Volunteers: randomised to coaching: 21 by professionals, 22 by peers, 20 controls.  Peer coaches had 1 day of training.  Measures at end of 10 weeks: better attendance and more progress towards goals in professional group.  (anthonyg@psych.usyd.edu.au; gordons@psych.usyd.edu.au) 

Sun Yunxia, Wu Lin, Guo Xiangrong (2015)  Application effects of solution focused approach on psychological nursing in patients with MRI examination Chinese Journal of Modern Nursing 26. MRI subjects with claustrophobia; random; 64 exp 5 sess sf counseling / 64 TAU.  Patients and caregivers report less anxiety / depression / dyspnea 26.5% exp vs 37.5%  / sweating 46.8% vs  64.1%: P <0.05.  doi: 10.3760 / cma.j.issn.1674-2907.2015.26.005  (Mandarin)

Tao Xiaohong, Shi Weidong (2014) Application of Solution-focused Approach Intervention on T2DM Patients with Depression Journal of Modern Medicine & Health 2014, (19). Doi:10.3969/j.issn.1009-5519.2014.19.007 Random; patients with type 2 diabetes and depression; exp 90: TAU + sft / control 90: TAU. 5 metabolic indexes before and after 6 mon: both groups are significantly lower (P<0.05); self-care better except smoking. Exp depression scores (53.23±3.79) significantly lower than controls (59.04±4.48) (P<0.05). (Mandarin)

Thorslund KW (2007) Solution-focused group therapy for patients on long-term sick leave: a comparative outcome study.  Journal of Family Psychotherapy 18(3):11-24.  Randomised 15 exp / 15 control; 1-5 mon sick.  8 sess; increased return to work (60%(9) vs 13%(2)) and psychological health improved at 3 mon follow-up.  (karin.wallgren@losningsfokus.se)

Valve P, Lehtinen-Jacks S, Eriksson T, Lehtinen M, Lindfors P, Saha M-T, Rimpelä A, Anglé S. (2013) LINDA – a solution-focused low-intensity intervention aimed at improving health behaviors of young females: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.  BMC Public Health 13:1044  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1044  3059 subjects (in HPV vaccine programme); 1537 received also sf lifestyle intervention 3-5 times.  37% exp improved on activity, sleep and diet at 2.5 yr vs 31% controls.  Counselling sounds quite directive. (paivi.valve@uta.fi)

Vogelaar L, van’t Spijker A, Vogelaar T, van Busschbach JJ, Visser MS, Kuipers EJ, van der Woude CJ (2011) Solution focused therapy: A promising new tool in the management of fatigue in Crohn's disease patients: Psychological interventions for the management of fatigue in Crohn's disease. J Crohn’s and Colitis. doi:10.1016/j.crohns.2011.06.001  

Vogelaar L, van’t Spijker A, Timman R, van Tilburg AJP, Bac D, Vogelaar T, Kuipers EJ, van Busschbach JJV, van der Woude CJ (2013) Fatigue management in patients with IBD: a randomised controlled trial.  Gut:doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305191.  Randomised: 98 patients; sft or CAU for 3 mon.  39% improved on fatigue and QoL vs 18% but both groups similar at 9 mon follow-up.  (l.vogelaar@erasmusmc.nl)

Wake M, Baur LA, Gerner B, Gibbons K, Gold L, Gunn J, Levickis P, McCallum Z,  Naughton G, Sanci L, Ukoumunne OC (2009)  Outcomes and costs of primary care surveillance and intervention for overweight or obese children: the LEAP 2 randomised controlled trial.  British Medical Journal 339: 1132.  Overweight children in primary care: randomised: 139 offered 4 sess sf health education; 112 controls.  Mean  attendance  2.7 sess.  No significant change or difference in BMI, activity or nutrition at 12 mon follow-up.  (melissa.wake@rch.org.au)

Wang Shan, Xu Jin-zhi, Zhang Jin-feng (2015) Effects of solution-focused approach in the rehabilitation training of patients with lung cancer.  Chinese Journal of General Practice 13(10). Random: 40 exp rehab exercises; sft / 40 controls rehab exercises.  Quality of life and health status significantly better (P <0.05) in exp at 3 mon.  (Mandarin)
Wang Ze-min, Long Sen, Zhou Jing, Wang Yu-wen, Chen Zhi-yu (2014)  Study on the effect of the Medication Guide for Patients with Schizophrenia.  Hospital Management Forum 8.  100 patients with schizophrenia; randomised: 50 exp / 50 controls.  Both received medication guidance; exp also sf approach.  Compliance, curative effect and drug treatment-related knowledge of exp group significantly higher (P<0.05). (Mandarin)

Wilmshurst LA (2002)  Treatment programs for youth with emotional and behavioural disorders: an outcome study of two alternate approaches.  Mental Health Services Research 4:85-96.  Randomised controlled study: 12 wk; 27 clients 5 day/wk residential, sft, family contact 26 hr; 38 non-resident programme, cbt, family contact 48 hr.  I yr  follow-up: Behaviour improved in both groups; ADHD behaviours better in 63% of cbt, 22% of sft; group scores better for anxiety, depression with cbt.  Author suggests residential care is detrimental.

Wu Chen-Hui, Lo Ming Hua (2015) The effects of the solution-focused group counseling for relational aggression bullied students on self-esteem and social skills. National Taichung University of Education Institutional Repository Item 987654321/455.  Bulllied students; random 5 exp sf groups 10 sess /  5 controls no treatment.  Significant improvement in social skills and work; no change in self-esteem.  http://ntcuir.ntcu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/455 (Mandarin)
Yang Jun-En, Qiao Ai-Xin, Han Jing, Zhang Hong-Xin, Liu Xiao-Ping (2013) Observation on the effect of solution focused theory on improving sleep quality of ACS patients with clinical pathway.  Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing 29(29)  doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1672-7088.2013.29.014  Random allocation: exp 49 /  control 51.  Sleep quality assessed with the Athens Insomnia Scale (ASI); sf intervention.  At 4 wks 7/8 items significantly improved (not daytime expressed emotion).  (Mandarin)

*Zhang Hang, Jin Ruifen, Wu Chunming, Cao Jialin (2014)  Application of solution-focused approach in the health education management in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.  Chinese Journal of Modern Nursing 12.  Doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1674-2907.2014.12.009.  Randomised: 30 exp: sf health education / 30 controls: TAU.  Significant differences (P<0.05): Knowledge: exp 90% / control 33.3%; satisfaction 93.3% / 83.3%; quality of life higher in exp (238.31 ±24.68) / 201.53 ± 21.59; compliance 86.6% / 66.7%. (Mandarin)
Zhang H-Y, Wu W-E, Wen W-J, Zheng Y-M (2010)  Application of solution focused approach in schizophrenia patients of convalescent period.  Medical Journal of Chinese People's Health 18: 2410-2412.  120 schizophrenia patients; randomised; observation group 31 male, 27 female; 5-step sf health education approach; controls 34 male, 22 female; routine health education.  Pre and post evaluation by medical reply and social support.  Significantly more social support and coping with illness in observation group (p>0.05). (Mandarin)

Zhang Xi-xia, Zhang Lan-feng, Liu Min-jie (2013) Effect of solution-focused approach combined with auricular acupressure on relieving the anxiety and pain of patients with postmenopausal cervical cancer during afterloading brachytherapy. Chinese Journal of Modern Nursing 34. 
Doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1674-2907.2013.34.014   Random, 60 exp: sf approach nursing and auricular acupressure;  60 controls conventional nursing.  Self-rating anxiety less p<0.05; pain less p<0.005, satisfaction greater p<0.05 in exp. (Mandarin)

Zhao MingmingRen Lei, Jiang Wei LianLi NingYan Leilei, Hao Lina  (2015)  Focus solving model for young breast cancer patients after effects of anxiety and depression. Modern Preventive Medicine 03. 150 young breast cancer patients; randomised; 75 exp sf model; 75 controls general health education.  Anxiety Rating Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS); significant difference in exp (P<0.05) but continued negative emotions needing support.  (Mandarin)

Zheng Li-wei, Li Xin-ming, Wang Hui-jun (2013)  Application and effect of solution focused approach on patients with GDM during pregnancy follow-up.  Chinese Journal of Modern Nursing 19(14).  doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1674-2907.2013.14.009  180 patients with GDM who chose hospital delivery; 90 exp / 90 control. There was no statistically significant difference of caesarean section rate between two groups (x2 =1.283 2,P > 0.05). The incidence rate of perinatal complication were all  significantly lower than controls. (Mandarin)

Zhou Li-li, Ji Tian-rong, Liu Feng, Bu Zhi-hua, Liu Li, Yang Xiao-yun (2013)  Effect of nursing intervention based on solution-focused approach on self-management ability of patients with maintenance hemodialysis. Chinese Journal of Modern Nursing 34.  Randomised: 60 exp (SF nursing) / 60 controls (routine nursing).  6 mon follow-up: knowledge of disease and self-management significantly improved in exp group.  Doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1674-2907.2013.34.004  (Mandarin)

COMPARISON STUDIES (69)

Amiri H, Sharme MS, Zarchi AK, Bahari F , Binesh A. (2013) Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Communication Training (SFCT) in Nurses’ Communication Skills.  Iranian Journal of Military Medicine 14 (4): 279- 286. 71 nurses from medical-surgical departments of Tehran hospital. 8 hour workshop; pre-test; post-test two months after.  3 questionnaires completed (participant, head nurse, colleagues). Mean difference statistically significant [P= 0/001]; also between mean scores of 4 subscales of nurses' communication skills. (amirizh@yahoo.com)

Anderson L, Vostanis P, O’Reilly M (2005) Three-year follow-up of a family support service cohort of children with behavioural problems and their parents.  Child: Care, Health and Development 31(4):469-477. One of three groups had sft.  Improvement not sustained or new problems arose by 3 yrs for all groups.
Antle BF, Barbee AP, Christensen DN, Martin MH (2008) Solution-based casework in child welfare: preliminary evaluation research.   Journal of Public Health Child Welfare 2(2): 197- 227.  Study 1: fully trained workers, 27 cases; minimal trained, 21 cases.  Better compliance, less legal action, fewer removals in trained group.   Study 2: 51 cases from fully trained, 49 minimal.  Better compliance and goal achievement in both urban and rural areas. 

Antle BF, Barbee AP, Christensen DN, Sullivan DJ (2009)  The prevention of child maltreatment recidivism through the Solution-Based Casework model of child welfare practice. Children and Youth Services Review 31 (12): 1346-1351.  6 mon follow-up: 39 SBC workers, 339 cases; 38 TAU workers, 421 cases.  Significantly less recidivism for SBC: 350.69 cases vs 538.00.

Antle BF, Christensen DN, van Zyl MA, Barbee AP (2012) The impact of the Solution Based Casework Practice Model on federal outcomes in public child welfare.  Child Abuse and Neglect http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.10.009.  4559 child welfare cases were reviewed through a CQI case review process. High levels of fidelity to the model demonstrated significantly better outcomes in the areas of child safety, permanency and well-being and exceeded federal standards. Components of Solution-Based Casework were significant predictors of these federal outcomes and accounted for variance in these outcomes better than any other casework process factors.

Barlow A, Banks AP (2014)  Using emotional intelligence in coaching high-performance athletes: a randomised controlled trial.  Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice DOI: 10.1080/17521882.2014.939679  High-performance netball players: 10 exp; 10 controls; Bar-On EQ-i emotional intelligence profiles. Coaching significantly improved self-efficacy and anxiety which link directly to EQ-I scales but not team identification which does not link directly; no change in the control group. So sf coaching is effective if direct link between a particular component of emotional intelligence and a particular outcome.  (a.banks@surrey.ac.uk)

Bostandzhiev Vl, Bozhkova E (2011) A comparative study in a Mental Health Day Center 2002- 2005 (Macdonald AJ, Solution Focused Therapy: Theory, Research and Practice.  Sage Publications: London 2011).  96 subjects : 41 exp / 55 controls.  Group 1 (n=14; anxiety disorders, depression): solution-focused therapy without drug therapy.  Groups 2, 3 and 4 included schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and anxiety disorders.  Group 2 (n=8): medication without psychotherapy; Group 3 (n=27): solution-focused therapy and medication; Group 4 (n=47): syncretic group therapy (discussion of problems; avg 30 sess) and medication.
31 patients (32.3%) diagnosed as schizophrenia.  Avg 2.6 sess; range 1-7. 
Group 1: 78.5% improved; Group 2: 25%; Group 3: 63%; Group 4: 19%.  15% of Group 4 showed deterioration but none of the others.  Thus 65.8% improved when solution-focused therapy was included vs 20% without.  Improvement measured by OQ45,GAF and client’s scaling.  Rapid change in daily functioning for all diagnostic categories, ranging  from coping with chores and family to full recovery.  (See also Bozhkova E (2011) Psychology - Theory and Practice 3: 85-95 (Bulgarian; abstract in English). (mail@bozhkova.info)

Carrera M, Cabero A, González S, Rodríguez N, García C, Hernández L, Manjón J (2015), Solution-focused group therapy for common mental health problems: Outcome assessment in routine clinical practice. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice. doi: 10.1111/papt.12085  132 mental health users 7 sess sf group therapy / 132 matched controls: usual care.  Mean post-SFGT levels significantly lower than pre-SFGT levels on each self-report measure.   At 24 mon SFGT showed a significantly higher percentage of discharges and fewer clients returning for help than with UC.

Cepukiene V, Pakrosnis R (2011) The outcome of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy among foster care adolescents: The changes of behavior and perceived somatic and cognitive difficulties. Children and Youth Services Review 33(6):791–797.  7 foster care homes in Lithuania. Treatment (mean age 14.6) and control groups similar; 46 adolescents each.  Maximum of 5 sessions. Evaluation at 6 weeks:  Standardized Interview for the Evaluation of Adolescents' Problems.  31% of treatment group significant behavior change; 29% change in somatic and cognitive difficulties.  (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.11.027.  v.cepukiene@smf.vdu.lt; r.pakrosnis@smf.vdu.lt)

Chung SA, Yang S (2004) The effects of solution-focused group counseling program for the families with schizophrenic patients. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi (Journal of the Korean Academy of Nursing) 34:1155-63.  48 schizophrenic patients and 56 families; 24 patients and 28 families each in exp and control gps.  8 group sess for exp; significant reduction in family burden and expressed emotion vs controls.  (Korean)

Connell MA (2014)  Modifying Academic Performance Using Online Grade Book Review During Solution-Focused Brief Therapy.  Walden University Dissertation 3631272.  Three groups of at-risk students: Group 1 SFBT only (18); Group 2 (20) SFBT and Online Grade Book Review (JumpRope); Group 3 (22) JumpRope alone.  Results suggested statistical significance of including gradebook review within SFBT resulted in improved academic performance.
Corcoran JA (2006) A comparison group study of solution-focused therapy versus “treatment-as-usual” for behavior problems in children. Journal of Social Service Research 33:69-81.  239 children; 83 sft vs 156 ‘treatment as usual’.  Better treatment engagement with sft but no outcome differences.  (jcorcora@vcu.edu)

Dai, Hsiao-yun (2015) Study of reducing central pain syndrome for patients with spinal cord injury by using solution-focused brief therapy and multiple techniques. National Taipei University Nursing and Health Sciences Institutional Repository Item 987654321/3905. 7 exp: SFT steps used; pain scores / 7 controls TAU. Exp: positive relationship, praise and homework not found useful.  Pain scores significantly reduced in exp.  http://140.131.94.7/handle/987654321/3905  (Mandarin)

Eakes G, Walsh S, Markowski M, Cain H, Swanson M (1997)  Family-centred brief solution-focused therapy with chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study. Journal of Family Therapy 19:145-158.  Experimental and control groups: 5 clients and families each.  Reflecting team also used.  Exp: Family Environment Scale showed significant increase in expressiveness, active-recreational orientation and decrease in incongruence.  Controls: moral-religious emphasis increased.

Followed (?), Eun Young Choi (2014)  The impact solution-focused group art therapy on the social problem-solving skills of young people. Art Therapy Research 21.3 (2014): 479-498.  www.newnonmun.com/article=63971  Adolescents with poor social competence: 11 exp: 12 sess sf group art therapy; 11 controls no intervention.  Social competence improved in exp group at end of study.  (Korean)

Forrester D, Copello A, Waissbein C, Pokhrel S (2008) Evaluation of an intensive family preservation service for families affected by parental substance misuse.  Child Abuse Review 17(6): 410 – 426.  Intensive Family Preservation Service: motivational interviewing / sft for 279 children; TAU for 89.  Evaluation 3.5 yrs later: 40% of each group been in care but less time and cost saving for intervention group. (Donald.Forrester@beds.ac.uk)

Franklin C, Moore K, Hopson L (2008)  Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy in a School Setting.  Children and Schools 30(1):15-26.  30 exp (School A); 5-7 groups; 29 control (School B); 1 mon follow-up (43).  Teachers: externalised and internalised behaviours significantly improved, students externalised behaviours significantly improved.

Franklin C, Streeter CL, Kim JS, Tripodi SJ (2007)  The Effectiveness of a Solution-Focused, Public Alternative School for Dropout Prevention and Retrieval.  Children and Schools 29(3):133-144.  46 exp / 39 comparison.  Significantly more credits earned and more credits per time spent for exp with lower attendance rates.   81% graduation rate for exp / 90% for comparison after correcting for difference in policies.  (cfranklin@mail.utexas.edu)

Gostautas A, Cepukiene V, Pakrosnis R, Fleming JS (2005) The outcome of solution-focused brief therapy for adolescents in foster care and health institutions.  Baltic Journal of Psychology 6:5-14.   81 exp (44 foster / 37 health care) / 52 comparison; test battery 1-4 wk after 2-5 sess (avg 3.42).  Grouped data: significant difference all measures for exp group; therapists rated 82% much improved.  Scaling in keeping with standard instruments. (a.gostautas@smf.vdu.lt)

Grant AM, Green LS, Rynsaardt  J (2010) Developmental Coaching for High School Teachers: Executive Coaching Goes to School.  Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 62:151-168.  23 exp / 21 controls; 10 week programme.  Improved goal attainment, resilience and wellbeing at end of programme.  (anthonyg@psych.usyd.edu.au)

Jiao Yinghua (2014) Application of solution focused approach in psychological intervention by oncology nurses.  Chinese Community Doctors  35.  doi: 10.3969 / j.issn.1007-614x.2014.35.93.  Oncology nurses: 25 exp sf training / 25 controls usual training.  Scores significantly reduced in intervention group.  In observation group, 13 cases were markedly effective; 10 cases effective; efficiency 92%.  In the control group, 8 cases were markedly effective and 10 cases effective;  efficiency 72% (difference P<0.05). (Mandarin)

Kang Jie,  Wang Yun, Sun Hong (2014)  Effect of solution focused approach on negative emotion and cancer-related fatigue for patients with cancer chemotherapy.  China Medical Herald 35. 39 exp sf nursing / 39 routine nursing.  Negative emotions less in exp (P<0.05); increase in fatigue for controls. (Mandarin)

Koob JJ, Love SM (2010) The implementation of solution-focused therapy to increase foster care placement stability.  Children and Youth Services Review 32(10):1346-1350. 31 adolescents with multiple placements: CBT in year 1, sft in year 2.  Number of disruptions in sft year decreased from mean 6.29 (SD 3.6) to mean 1.45 (SD 0.68), p <.001.

Kvarme LG, Helseth S, Sørum R, Luth-Hansen V, Haugland S, Natvig GK (2010)  The effect of a solution-focused approach to improve self-efficacy in socially withdrawn school children: A non-randomized controlled trial.  International Journal of Nursing Studies, doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.05.001   Exp girls 55 / boys 36; controls girls 44 /  boys 20.  SF group programme: increase in self-efficacy on standard measures at post-test for girls and at 3 mon follow-up for boys and girls (slight improvement for controls also at 3 mon).  (lisbeth.kvarme@diakonova.no)

 LaFountain RM, Garner NE (1996)  Solution-focused counselling groups: the results are in.  Journal for Specialists in Group Work 21:128-143.  Exp: 27 sft counsellors, 176 students; control 30 non-sft counsellors, 135 students.  Exp better on 3 of 8 measures including 81% goal achievement (controls no report).   Less depersonalisation and more personal accomplishment in sft counsellers at 1 yr.

Lambert MJ, Okiishi JC, Finch AE, Johnson LD (1998)  Outcome assessment: From conceptualization to implementation. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice 29:63-70.  22 cases from Johnson & Shaha (1996) compared with 45 at university public mental health center. Both methods achieved 46% recovered by objective criteria (OQ-45) ('Improved' cases not reported); sft by 3rd sess, center by 26th.

Lamprecht H, Laydon C, McQuillan C, Wiseman S, Williams L, Gash A, Reilly J (2007)  Single-session solution-focused brief therapy and self-harm: a pilot study.  Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 14:601-2.  40 first time selfharmers; 1 sess.  2 rpt (6.25%) in 1 yr follow-up vs 40/302 (13.2%) untreated. (Updates Wiseman S (2003) Brief intervention: reducing the repetition of deliberate self-harm.  Nursing Times 99:34-36)  (j.g.reilly@durham.ac.uk)

Lee, Hyun-Ju, Eom Myeongyong (2014)  Depressed women target low-income seniors living alone, the positive psychological development and effective solution - focused integrated community programs. Korea Social Welfare, 66(3):101-131. Quasi-experimental nonequivalent comparison group design; exp group program based on positive psychology and sf 10 sess; controls reminiscence group program 10 sess; no intervention group TAU. Increased subjective wellbeing and less depression in exp only at 11 wk follow-up. (Korean) (www.newnonmun.com/article=66209)

Liang CY (2010) The Psychological-Guidance Effects of Solution-Focused Group Counseling on Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities.  Guidance and Counseling Institute p182.  Exp 8: 4 sf interviews; control 8: no interviews.  Significant increase in self-empowerment and decrease in learning disturbances at follow-up (when?). (Mandarin)

Littrell JM, Malia JA, Vanderwood M (1995)  Single-session brief counseling in a high school.  Journal of Counseling and Development 73:451-458.  61 students; 19 problem focus and task, 20 problem focus only, 22 solution focus and task.  69% better at 6 wk follow-up in all groups but shorter sessions in sft.  (jlittrel@iastate.edu)

McAllister M, Zimmer-Gembeck M, Moyle W, Billett S (2008) Working effectively with clients who self-injure using a solution-focused approach.  International Emergency Nursing, 16(4): 272-279.  Nurses in two Australian emergency departments completed questionnaires before and after participating in SFN training focused on working with complex clients who self-harm. A comparison group of nurses also completed questionnaires. Results indicated some benefits of the intervention; there were improvements in participants’ perception that nursing is strengths oriented and in nurses’ satisfaction with their skills. There were no significant improvement in nurses’ reports of their professional self-concept.

Mintoft B, Bellringer ME, Orme C (2005)  Improved client outcome services project: an intervention with clients of problem gambling treatment.  ECOMMUNITY: International journal of mental health and addiction 3:30-40.  23 unimproved clients compared with 62 who refused further treatment and with national statistics.  First session motivational interviewing and cbt, then up to 16 wks sft and self-completion booklet about goals and exceptions.  11 completed programme; improvement on all measures; numbers too small for statistics.  No data on number of sessions or partial completers.  (br.mintoft@auckland.ac.nz)

Newsome WS (2004)  Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Groupwork With At-Risk Junior High School Students: Enhancing the Bottom Line. Research on Social Work Practice 14(5):336–43. 26 exp / 26 controls; poor grades and attendance.  Group programme for exp only; grades improved 1.58 pretest / 1.69 posttest. Controls 1.66 pretest / 1.48 posttest; significant difference.  No change in attendance which had already improved.  (Quoted as ‘promising treatment’ by Office of Juvenile Justice: http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/Default.aspx)

Nowicka P, Haglund P, Pietrobelli A, Lissau I, Flodmark C-E (2008) Family Weight School treatment: 1-year results in obese adolescents.  International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 3(3): 141-147.   65 exp: Family Weight School group; 23 no-treatment controls.  49 exp / 17 controls at 1 yr: significant weight loss in moderate obesity.

Pakrosnis R, Cepukiene V (2011)  Outcomes of solution-focused brief therapy for adolescents in foster care and health care settings.  129 adolescents; 112 completed therapy (19% dropout); 91 controls.  Maximum 5 sess; avg 3.11.  Significant improvement at end of therapy for 77% foster care; 67% mental health care; 52% rehabilitation group.  In Franklin C, Trepper T, Gingerich WJ, McCollum E. (eds) Solution-focused Brief Therapy: A Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice. Oxford University Press: New York 2011. (CFranklin@mail.utexas.edu; trepper@calumet.purdue.edu)

Pakrosnis, R, Cepukiene V. (2014) Solution-focused self-help for improving university students’ well-being.  Innovations in Education and Teaching International: ahead-of-print 1-11. DOI: 10.1080/14703297.2014.930352  173 undergraduate Lithuanian psychology students: solution-focused self-reflection 60; cognitive restructuring self-reflection 66; free observation 47. Subjective measures of well-being twice within a 12-day period. Both intervention groups did better on all applied measures.  SFSR superior to CRSR in evaluation of usefulness and acceptability of the intervention.  (rytpak@yahoo.com)

Panayotov P, Anichkina A,  Strahilov B (2011)  Solution-focused brief therapy and long-term medical treatment compliance / adherence with patients suffering from schizophrenia: a pilot naturalistic clinical observation.  51 pts; treatment as usual and sft.  Own controls: compliance 244 days; increase to 827 days after therapy completed.  76% still taking meds at time of study.  (plamenpan@mail.bg)  In Franklin C, Trepper T, Gingerich WJ, McCollum E. (eds) Solution-focused Brief Therapy: A Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice. Oxford University Press: New York 2011.

Perkins R (2006)  The effectiveness of one session of therapy using a single-session therapy approach for children and adolescents with mental health problems.  Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 79:215-227.  78 exp single sess / 88 no treatment; follow-up 4 wks.  Severity reduced 74.3% vs 42.5%; frequency of symptoms reduced 71.45% vs 48.3%.  (ruthp@iimetro.com.au)

Pooler, T. (2015). Targeting the Mental Health Needs of Misdemeanor Defendants. New York. http://www.courtinnovation.org/sites/default/files/documents/BCSMHI.pdf.  2013: 1950 (23%) of 8,685 screened at Bronx Community Solutions had possible mental health needs.  Group / sft individual  intervention: less likely to be re-arrested (53% vs. 58%);significantly lower number of re-arrests (1.3 vs. 1.6) within 1 yr. At 2 yr individual session only sample consistently had fewer re-arrests on average than the mental health group only sample.
org.uk/globalassets/documents/research-reports/face-to-face-final-evaluation-report.pdf 

Rhee WK, Merbaum M, Strube MJ (2005)  Efficacy of brief telephone psychotherapy with callers to a suicide hotline.  Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 35:317-328. 55 callers completed study: sft 16, common factors therapy 17, wait list 24.  Significant improvement on 10/14 measures for treated groups; no between-group differences.  (mmerbaum@wustl.edu)

Roeden, J.M., Maaskant, M.A. & Curfs, L.M.G. (2012). Process and effects of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy with People with Intellectual Disabilities; a Controlled Study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. doi: 10.1111/jir.12038  Controlled: 20 people with mild ID receiving SFBT and 18 people with MID receiving care as usual (CAU). 2 of the 20 clients quit SFBT prematurely. Most clients receiving SFBT (13 of 18 clients) showed clinically relevant progressions (more than 2 points on a 1 to 10 scale) towards their treatment goals after SFBT (13 of 18 clients) and at follow-up (14 of 18 clients). Directly after therapy, the SFBT group performed statistically significantly better than the CAU group on psychological functioning, social functioning, maladaptive behaviour, autonomy, and social optimism. At 6 wks follow-up improvements in psychological functioning, social functioning, and maladaptive behaviour were still statistically significant compared to CAU, with medium to large effect sizes. (j.roeden@baalderborggroep.nl)

Roeden JM, Maaskant MA, Curfs LMG (2014). Effectiveness of Solution-focused Coaching of Staff of People With Intellectual Disabilities: A Controlled Study. Journal of Systemic Therapies: Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 16-34. doi: 10.1521/jsyt.2014.33.2.16. 18 teams with support problem with ID client received sf coaching; 26 control teams received usual coaching as usual. Quality of staff-client relationships measured before /  after coaching and 6 wk follow-up. Sf teams significantly improved on proactive thinking and quality of the relationship; both for individual staff members (45 - 59) and teams (18  - 26); progress towards team goal improved. The differences were sustained at follow-up. (j.roeden@baalderborggroep.nl)

Rothwell N (2005) How brief is solution focussed brief therapy?  A comparative study.  Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 12:402-405.  Pseudo-randomization: 41 sft/119 cbt.  Sft avg 2 sess, cbt avg 5 sess.  No outcome difference on GAF.  (Neil.rothwell@fvpc.scot.nhs.uk)

Sanai B, Davarniya R, Bakhtiari Said B, Shakarami M (2015) The Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) on Reducing Couple Burnout and Improvement of the Quality of Life of Married Women. Armaghane-danesh 20(5): 416-432. Married women attending center of mental health helpers in Bojnoord, Iran. 15 exp: 7 wkly 2hr group sess / 15 controls no treatment. Couple burnout measurement (Pains 1996) and  WHOQOL(1996) pre and post: marital burnout  significantly reduced by 17.53% and quality of life improved by 19.86%; controls no change.  (armaghanj.yums.ac.ir)  (Persian)

Sari E, Yayci L (2013) The effect of the solution-focused decision-making training program on the vigilant decision-making of university students.  International Journal of Academic Research 5(3):159-166.  16 exp: sf decision-making training; 16 controls; 8 placebo.  Significant improvement in exp at post-test; maintained 6 wks later.

Seidel A, Hedley D (2008) The Use of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy With Older Adults in Mexico: A Preliminary Study.  American Journal of Family Therapy 36(3): 242-252. 10 exp / 10 controls; 3 sess; various outcome measures.  Significant improvement on OQ45 for treatment group.  (anke_seidel@hotmail.com)

Short E, Kinman G, Baker S (2010)  Evaluating the impact of a peer coaching intervention on well-being amongst psychology undergraduate students.  International Coaching Psychology Review 5(1): 27-35.  32 exp receive sf coaching training and 5 sess; 33 no coaching experience or teaching. Less increase in distress in exp; 23 (72%) exp reported intervention to be effective.  (emma.short@beds.ac.uk)

Springer DW, Lynch C, Rubin A (2000)  Effects of a solution-focused mutual aid group for Hispanic children of incarcerated parents.  Child and Adolescent Social Work 17:431-442.  5 schoolchildren offered 6 session group using sft / interactional / mutual aid approaches vs 5 waiting list controls.  Possibly significant increase in self-esteem in exp group.

Stith SM, Rosen KH, McCollum EE, Thomsen CJ (2004)  Treating intimate partner violence within intact couple relationships: outcomes of multi-couple versus individual couple therapy.  Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 30:305-318.  14/20 individual couples, 16/22 multi-group couples completed program, 9 couples comparison group; all mild-to-moderate violence.  Follow-up (females contacted): 6 mon recidivism 43% individual, 25% multi-group, 67% comparison; 2 yr recidivism: 0%, 13% (one client), 50%.  (Additional cases reported McCollum EE, Stith SM,  Thomsen CJ (2011) Solution-focused brief therapy in the conjoint couples treatment of intimate partner violence. Reduced physical aggression in both sexes for 17/20 individual couples; reduced in males only for 27/29 multi-group couples. In Franklin C, Trepper T, Gingerich WJ, McCollum E. (eds) Solution-focused Brief Therapy: A Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice. Oxford University Press: New York 2011.) (sstith@vt.edu)

Stoddart KP, McDonnell J, Temple V. Mustate A (2001) Is brief better?  A modified brief solution-focused therapy approach for adults with a developmental delay.  Journal of Systemic Therapies 20:24-41.  16/19 clients complete 8 sess; 6 mon follow-up.  Therapy 118 days vs 372 days for long-term comparison group; client satisfaction similar.  Better outcome if fewer problems, less developmental delay, real-life goals, self-referred.  Clients often requested more sessions.  (stoddart@aspergers.net)

Sundmann, P (1997)  Solution-focused ideas in social work. Journal of Family Therapy 19:159-172.  Exp: 9 social workers basic training in solution-focused ideas; 11 controls worked as usual.  Session tapes and questionnaires were analysed at 6 mon: 382 clients; 199 (52%) replied.  More positive statements, more goal focus and more shared views were found in the exp group.  (peter.sundman@taitoba.fi)

Tan Qing-hong, Yan Jian-fen,  Zhong Yun-lian, Li Si-zhen, Shi Na (2014)  Prevention effect of solution-focused nursing on rebleeding in patients with cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Hainan Medical Journal (1). Doi:10.3969/j.issn.1003-6350.2015.01.0052   Patients with esophageal and gastric varices: 60 exp sf nursing / 60 routine nursing. Prevention of rebleeding and blood tests in exp group significantly better (P<0.05).  (Mandarin)

Tang Ju-ping, Gu Li-hui, Sun Qing-ling (2013)  Application of solution-focused model in the care of dermatitis patients. Chinese Nursing Management 11.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1672-1756.2013.011.031  Neurodermatitis patients: 46 exp (SF nursing) / 48 control (routine nursing). 3 wks follow-up: significant improvement in treatment effects and anxiety and depression.  (Mandarin)

Triantafillou N (1997)  A solution-focused approach to mental health supervision.  Journal of Systemic Therapies 16:305-328.  Supervision of residential staff. 5 adolescent clients: 66% less incidents, less medication use vs 7 controls: 10% less incidents, medication increased at 16 wks. (Republished with introduction: 2011 InterAction  3(1) 46-83)

Viner RM, Christie D, Taylor V, Hey S (2003)  Motivational/solution-focused intervention improves HbA1c in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: a pilot study.  Diabetic Medicine 20(9):739-42.  77 approached: 21 exp, 20 controls; 2 group sess.  Improvement in glycaemic index and Self-efficacy in Diabetes measures at 6 mon.; not sustained at 12 mon. (r.viner@ich.ucl.ac.uk)

Violeta Enea ID (2009) Motivational/solution-focused intervention for reducing school truancy among adolescents. Jour Cognitive & Behavioural Therapies 9(2):185-198. 19 exp / 19 controls age 16-17; 8 group counselling sessions MI / sft.  61% decrease in truancy for exp; no change for controls.

Vostanis P, Anderson L, Window S (2006) Evaluation of a family support service: short-term outcome. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 11(4):513-528.  (doi: 10.1177/1359104506067874).  Family support service A: 51 children; family support B (sf): 49.  Matched controls: 40 children referred to CAMHS.  Better reduction of HoNOSCA, SDQ and satisfaction scores in both FSS: sf faster.

Walker L, Hayashi L  (2009)  Pono Kaulike: reducing violence with restorative justice and solution-focused approaches.  Federal Probation 73(1).  4 year pilot programme: 59 eligible; 41 exp, of whom 38 evaluated; 21 controls.  10/38 (26%) reoffend; 12/21 (57%) controls; significant (t=2.17, p<0.05).  (http://www.uscourts.gov/viewer.aspx?doc=/uscourts/FederalCourts/PPS/Fedprob/2009-06/index.html)

Wells A, Devonald M, Graham V, Molyneux R (2010)  Can solution focused techniques help improve mental health and employment outcomes?  Journal of Occupational Psychology, Employment and Disability 12(1): 3-15.  82 exp up to 6 sess; 64 completed / 82 controls no treatment.  Improved mental health scores, self-esteem, expectation of ability to work on objective measures, scaling.  41 (64%) exp moved into work or work preparation; not significantly different from controls. (alyson.wells@jobcentreplus.gsi.gov.uk)

Wheeler J (1995)  Believing in miracles: the implications and possibilities of using solution-focused therapy in a child mental health setting.  ACPP Reviews & Newsletter 17:255-261.  3 mon follow-up of 34 (traced) sft referrals and 39 (traced) routine referrals: 23 (68%) vs 17 (44%) satisfied; other clinic resources used by 4 (12%) vs 12 (31%).  (John@jwheeler.freeserve.co.uk)

Xu Lian-fang, Chen Run-fang, Xiao Pei-duo, Huang Li-fang (2014) The effects of solution-focused approach in psychological intervention of sitting at early stage in post-operative elders with hip fracture.  Journal of Nursing Administration 14(11).  206 elderly patients with hip fracture: alternate allocation 103 exp: sft / 103 controls bicycle exercise; both groups out of bed early.  Fewer concerns, coping better in exp group (P <0.01; P <0.05).  (Mandarin)

Yang F-R, Zhu S-L, Luo W-F (2005). Comparative study of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) combined with paroxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 19(4), 288-290.  OCD: 30 exp / 30 controls.  Paroxetine in standard dose; exp received 6-8 sft sess.  83.3% exp vs 60% controls improved on Y-BOCS at 2 wk follow-up.  (Mandarin; abstract in English)

Zhang Wei, Yan Ting-ting, Du Ya-song, Liu Xiao-hong (2014) Brief Report: Effects of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Group-Work on Promoting Post-traumatic Growth of Mothers Who Have a Child with ASD.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.  Quasi-experimental design:18 mothers in 2 groups, n = 9 in each: 6-session SFBT group therapy / 25 mothers control group: no treatment.  Significant increase in Post-traumatic Growth Inventory levels at 6 mon follow-up.  (Mandarin)

Zhang Wei  (2015) Thesis: Solution Focused Brief intervention group parents of autistic children after traumatic effect on the growth of research. Second Military Medical University (cdmd.cnki.com.cn) Detailed analysis of views from 5 special rehabilitation institutions and 104 parents of children with autism.   45 parents of children with autism: 20 undergo 6x1 wk SFBT group intervention; controls 25 parents of children with autism.  Rating scales before therapy and 6 mon after. Post-traumatic growth, "new possibilities" and "relations with others" scores statistically significant at 6 mon (P <0.05). (Mandarin)

Zhang Xi-xia,  Zhang Lan-feng, Liu Min-jie.  (2013)  Effect of solution-focused approach combined with auricular acupressure on anxiety and pain of patients with postmenopausal cervical cancer during and after loading brachytherapy.  Chinese Journal of Modern Nursing 34.  doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1674-2907.2013.34.014   60 exp (SF nursing; acupressure) / 60 controls (routine nursing); self-rating anxiety scale similar in both groups.  One wk follow-up:; significant reduction in anxiety and pain and improved satisfaction. (Mandarin)

Zhou Li-rui (2014) Effect analysis of applying solution-focused approach in health education for IVF-ET patients China Practical Medical 32.  In vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation patients: 60 exp: 5xsf sess / 60 controls TAU. Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and social support rating scale (SSRS): after transplantation exp scores were significantly improved (P<0.05). (Mandarin)

Zhou Yu-zhen Wang Ya-qin (2015) The effect of nursing intervention based on self-care model and solution focused approach on the abilities of daily living in patients after stroke. Chinese Journal of Nursing Education 12(9) doi:10.3761/j.issn.1672-9234.2015.09.014  100 exp: sf and usual care / 98 controls usual care.  Daily living skills and hope significantly higher (P<0.05) in exp after treatment package.  (Mandarin)

Zimmerman TS, Jacobsen RB, MacIntyre M, Watson C (1996)  Solution-focused parenting groups: an empirical study.  Journal of Systemic Therapies 15:12-25.  30 clients, 6 sess; 12 controls no treatment.  Significant improvement on Parenting Skills Inventory; no change on Family Strengths Assessment. (lindsay@picasso.colostate.edu)

Zimmerman TS, Prest LA, Wetzel BE (1997)  Solution-focused couples therapy groups: an empirical study. Journal of Family Therapy 19:125-144.  23 exp; 6 weekly groups / 13 no-treatment controls. Several relationship measures improved in exp group.

NATURALISTIC STUDIES (68)

Archuleta KL, Burr EA, Bell Carlson M, Ingram J, Irwin Kruger L, Grable J, Ford M. (2015) Solution Focused Financial Therapy: A Brief Report of a Pilot Study. Journal of Financial Therapy6(1):2. http://dx.doi.org/10.4148/1944-9771.1081  Pilot study: solution-focused financial therapy client intervention approach.  8  college students: variety of financial issues related to budgeting, investing and debt repayment problems. 3 mon follow-up: psychological well-being and financial behaviors improved, financial distress decreased.
Bell, R, Skinner C, Halbrook M (2011) Solution-Focused Guided Imagery as an Intervention for Golfers with the Yips. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity 6(1):1-16.  4 experienced golfers; multiple-baseline across participant design; solution-focused guided imagery (SFGI) for Type I yips. Data collected during actual 9-hole matches; 5 interventions. Follow-up 12-14 wks: effect maintained. Effects on other task-specific focal hand dystonias e.g., musicians, tennis players?

Bell R, Skinner C,  Fisher L (2009)  Decreasing Putting Yips in Accomplished Golfers via Solution-Focused Guided Imagery: A Single-Subject Research Design.  Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 21(1): 1-14.  3 golfers; 5 sess treatment: sf guided imagery.  3 wk follow-up showed improvement.  (robbell@bsu.edu)

Beyebach M, Rodriguez Sanchez M S, Arribas de Miguel J,  Herrero de Vega M, Hernandez C, Rodriguez Morejon, A (2000)  Outcome of solution-focused therapy at a university family therapy center.  Journal of Systemic Therapies 19:116-128.  83 cases; telephone follow-up, most 1 yr +.  82% satisfied; better outcome for ‘individual’ problems than for ‘relational’; more dropout for trainees; avg 4.7 sess. (mark.beyebach@upsa.es)

Brown EA, Dillenburger K (2004)  An evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention in families with children with behavioural problems within the context of a Sure Start programme.  Child Care in Practice 10:63-67.  12 children; Parent Management Training and sft; detailed measures; one mon follow-up.  5 improved; 5 borderline change; 2 (1 fostered) improved untreated.  

Burr W (1993) Evaluation der Anwendung losungsorientierter Kurztherapie in einer kinder- und jugendpsychiartischen Praxis (Evaluation of the use of brief therapy in a practice for children and adolescents). Familiendynamik 18:11-21. (German: abstract in English.)  55 cases; follow-up avg 9 mon. 34 replies; 26 (77%) improved.  Avg 4 sess; new problems reported in 4 with improvement and 4 without. (wburr@t-online.de)

Conoley CW, Graham JM, Neu T, Craig MC, O’Pry A, Cardin SA, Brossart DF, Parker RI (2003) Solution-focused family therapy with three aggressive and oppositional-acting children: an N=1 empirical study.  Family Process 42:361-374.  Manual and objective measures; avg 4.6 sess; 3 mon follow-up.  3/3 satisfied with result.  (collie-conoley@tamu.edu)

Cruz J, Littrell JM  (1998)  Brief counseling with Hispanic American college students.  Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development 26:227-238.  16 students; 2 sess; follow-up 2 wk.  62.5% improved.

Darmody M, Adams B (2003):  Outcome research on solution-focused brief therapy.  Journal of Primary Care Mental Health 7:70-75.  Goals, Coping Resources Inventory (CRI), client and therapist perception of session content.  20 cases; 3 mon follow-up.  Overall change not significant; intrapersonal problems did better; clients saw conversation about past as more important than did therapists. (Melissa@brieftherapy.ie)

DeJong P, Hopwood LE  Outcome research on treatment conducted at the Brief Family Therapy Center 1992-1993. In Miller SD, Hubble MA, Duncan BL (eds) (1996) Handbook of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco (p272-298).  275 cases: age 50%<19, 93%<45; avg 2.9 sess; follow-up avg 8 mon; 136 contacted.  45% goal achieved, 32% some progress.  Equal outcomes by age, gender, race, economic status.  (Immediate post therapy measure of change in scaling scores for 141 collected: 25% significant progress; 49% moderate progress; 26% no progress.  Berg IK, DeJong P (1996) Solution-building Conversations: Co-Constructing a Sense of Competence with Clients.  Families in Society, 77:376-391)  (djon@calvin.edu)

de Shazer S (1985)  Keys to Solutions in Brief Therapy. Norton: New York. (p147-157).  6 mon follow-up of 28 cases after formula first session task.  23 (82%) improved; 11 solved other problems.  Avg 5 sess.

de Shazer S  (1991)  Putting Differences To Work.  Norton: New York. (p161-162).  At 18 mon follow-up 86% reported success; 67% reported other improvements also.  Avg 4.6 sess: >3 sess did better. 

de Shazer S, Berg IK, Lipchik E, Nunnally E, Molnar A, Gingerich W, Weiner-Davis M (1986) Brief therapy: focused solution development.  Family Process 25:207-222.  Telephone follow-up of 25% of 1600 cases seen during a 5 year period; 72% improved; avg 6 sess.

de Shazer, S, Isebaert L (2003)  The Bruges Model: a solution-focused approach to problem drinking.  Journal of Family Psychotherapy 14:43-52.  4 yr telephone follow-up of 131 alcoholics after inpatient episode: 118 contactable, 9 dead.  100 (84%) abstinent (60) or successfully controlled their drinking (40).  4 yr telephone follow-up of 72 alcoholics after outpatient treatment: 59 (82%) contacted: abstinent (36) or successfully controlled (23).  Only relevant variable was therapy; social class was not a factor. (luc.isebaert@YAHOO.COM).

Dumciene A, Rakauskiene V (2014) Encouragement of Physical Activity among Students by Employing Short-term Educational Counselling.  Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 116:1523-152.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.428  92 students; after sf counseling, 44.6% previously facing physical activity issues achieved prominent changes, 21.7% achieved medium changes and 33.7% showed minor changes.  Physical activity increased, p<0.05.

Fadilah N, Setiawati D (2015). Application solution brief focused therapy (sfbt) to improve disclosure of self in Class VIII SMPN 1 Prambon.  Jurnal BK UNESA 5(3). 5 junior high school; low self-disclosure; improved  significantly post-test after sf counseling.   (nurfadillah994@ymail.com)  (Indonesian)

Fernandes P (2015) Evaluation of the Face to Face service. Using a solution-focused approach with children and young people in care or on the edge of care. NSPCC: 611 young people; up to 8 sess. 58% (355) young people had scores indicating distress; reduced to 15% (94) at end. 103 contacted at 3 mon: 82% (80) still improved.  No differences in outcomes related to age or learning difficulty.  http://www.nspcc.org.uk/globalassets/documents/research-reports/face-to-face-final-evaluation-report.pdf 

Flores LV (2005) Terapia grupal centrada en soluciones con personas que han tenido intento de suicidio.   Revista de Psicología 7: 32-41.  3 suicidal patients; 6 sf group sess.  Significant improvement 6 mon after treatment. (lorena_villanueva@yahoo.com)  (Spanish)

Franklin C, Biever JL, Moore KC, Clemons D, Scamardo, M (2001) The effectiveness of solution-focused therapy with children in a school setting. Research on Social Work Practice 11:411-434.  19 cases with learning problems: 7 investigated.  1 mon follow-up (objective measures); avg 7 sess.  Some improvement in all; 6 of 7 better.

Franklin C, Corcoran J, Nowicki J, Streeter CL (1997)  Using client self-anchored scales to measure outcomes in solution-focused therapy.  Journal of Systemic Therapies 16:246-265.  Pilot study (3 cases) of this measure as a test of outcome. 

George E, Iveson, C, Ratner H (1990)  Problem to Solution.  Brief Therapy Press: London.  6 mon telephone follow-up: 41 (66%) of 62 traced were satisfied.  (brief3@aol.com)

Grant AM, O’Connor SA (2010)  The Differential Effects of Solution-focused and Problem-focused Coaching Questions: A Pilot Study with Implications for Practice.  Industrial and Commercial Training Journal 42(2):102-111.  39 students had problem-focused coaching session with pre and post measures;  then 35 of them had sf session with pre and post measures.  More increase in goal approach and positive affect in sf group.  (anthonyg@psych.usyd.edu.au)

Green LS, Oades LG, Grant AM (2006)  Cognitive-behavioral, solution-focused life coaching: Enhancing goal striving, well-being, and hope.  Journal of Positive Psychology 1:142-149.  Self selected adults: 25 exp, 25 control; 16 hr training in self-coaching.  18 exp (no controls) follow-up at 30 wks: significant improvements in goal striving, wellbeing and hope.  (suzygreen@optusnet.com.au)

Hanton P (2008)  Measuring solution focused brief therapy in use with clients with moderate to severe depression using a ‘bricolage’research methodology.  Solution Research, 1(1): 16-24.  Depression in adults: 10 cases.   Beck Depression scores pre and post therapy; post therapy interview.  7 completed data: avg improvement in BDI score 55.12%.   Relationship, future focus and compliments identified as most useful; break and feedback least useful.  (paulhanton@blueyonder.co.uk)

He Hong, Huang Hui-wen, Zhang Jing, Zhang Xiao-yi (2013) Effect of solution focused approach on patients using insulin pen for self-injection. Chinese Journal of Modern Nursing 19(19). doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1674-2907.2013.19.014  124 outpatients with type 2 diabetes at Nantong University clinic; random split exp. (SF) and control (education). After intervention skills of insulin injection improved in exp (P<0.05) and incidence of adverse reactions lower. Mastery in both groups was significantly better.  (Mandarin)

Hendrick S, Isebaert L, Dolan Y (2011) Solution-focused brief therapy in alcohol treatment. 2 studies and update of de Shazer S, Isebaert L 2003.  de Stecker E: 30 subjects (60% male); median age 45; 60% live alone.  Significant improvement at 1 yr: 11.93 units/day reduce to 7.76. Opperman T: 30 cases (60% male); 83% live alone.  19 (63.3%) improved: 168g/day reduce to 79; 11 in better physical health at 1 yr.  In Franklin C, Trepper T, Gingerich WJ, McCollum E. (eds) Solution-focused Brief Therapy: A Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice. Oxford University Press: New York 2011.

Hinchey MC (2015) The implementation of solution-focused brief therapy (sfbt) with at-risk youth in an alternative school environment. Theses and Dissertations--Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology. Paper 37. 6 at-risk youth in an alternative school setting; 6 sess sft.  Significant and reliable behavioural change in 4.  6 wk follow-up: 4 contacted: 3 maintained the changes. http://uknowledge.uky.edu/edp_etds/37. 
Jacobs RH, Becker SJ, Curry JF, Silva SG Ginsburg GS, Henry DB, Reinecke MA (2014) Increasing positive outlook partially mediates the effect of empirically supported treatments on depression symptoms among adolescents.  Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 1:3-19.  Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/0889-8391.28.1.3  291 adolescents in Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS).  Change in 4 cognitive constructs (cognitive distortions, cognitive avoidance, positive outlook, and solution-focused thinking) mediated change in depression severity in a sample treated with CBT, fluoxetine or both.  All 3 treatments were associated with change in the cognitive constructs; combination treatment produced the greatest change.  Positive outlook was the construct most associated with changes over 36 wks.

Johnson LD, Shaha S (1996)  Improving quality in psychotherapy.  Psychotherapy 33:225-236.  38 cases, OQ-45 checklist (symptoms, relationships, social role).  Improvement after avg. 4.77 sess. (ljohnson@INCONNECT.COM)

Koorankot J, Mukherjee T, Ashraf ZAA (2014) Solution-Focused brief therapy for depression in an Indian tribal community: a pilot study.  International Journal of Solution-Focused Practices 2(1):4-8.  DOI 10.14335/ijsfp.v2i1.16  Part of larger continuing study: 9 patients: sft and SSRI antidepressant.  2 wk follow-up: 1 worse, 1 marginal, 7 significantly improved.  ‘Miracles’ part of their culture but not during sleep.  (jaseemclt@gmail.com)

Kreier F. Genco SM, Boreel M, Langkemper MP, Nugteren IC, Rijnveld V, Thissen V, Deden S, Keessen M.  (2013) An Individual, Community-Based Treatment for Obese Children and Their Families: The Solution-Focused Approach.  Obesity Facts 6:424-432. (DOI:10.1159/000355909)  559 obese children, avg BMI z-score of 2.76 ± 0.54 (12 mon study); 372 children avg BMI z-score of 2.75 ± 0.52 (24 mon study).  291 children (52%) completed 12 mon treatment; 22 (4%) dismissed earlier due to a good response. After 12 mon, the children showed a significant decrease in BMI z-score. 24 mon: 103 children (28%) significant decrease in BMI z-score of 0.15. 50 children (13%) dismissed before 24 mon due to significant weight loss. Negative correlation of age and reduction in BMI z-score for younger than 6 yrs.  (f.kreier@olvg.nl)

Kvarme, LG, Aabo LS, Saeteren B (2013) “I feel I mean something to someone”: solution-focused brief therapy support groups for bullied schoolchildren.  Educational Psychology in Practice: theory, research and practice in educational psychology 29(4): 416-431.  doi:10.1080/02667363.2013.859569. 19 schoolchildren, aged 12–13 years, 3 of whom were bullied. 6 interviews were conducted with the bullied children and 3 focus group interviews were held with the support groups. The bullied children reported that the bullying stopped after they received help from the support group and the improvements remained after three months. Their daily lives at school changed and they felt safer and happier and made friends. Members of the support groups reported that they were doing a meaningful job in helping the victims. ((lisbeth.kvarme@diakonova.no)

Lee MY (1997)  A study of solution-focused brief family therapy: outcomes and issues.  American Journal of Family Therapy 25:3-17.  59 children; various problems; 6 mon telephone follow-up, independent raters.  64.9% improved (goal achieved 54.4%; part goal 10.5%) avg 5.5 sess. (lee.355@osu.edu)

Lee MY, Greene GJ, Uken A, Sebold J, Rheinsheld J (1997)  Solution-focused brief group treatment: a viable modality for domestic violence offenders?  Journal of  Collaborative Therapies IV:10-17.  Sciotto study: 117 clients, 1993-1997; standard 6 sess completed by 88.  7% (6) reoffend by 1997.  Plumas study:  1994-1996: 34 clients; avg 7 sess; 3% (1) reoffend by 1997. (pcmhs@psln.com) (uken@jps.net)

Lee MY, Greene GJ, Mentzer RA, Pinnell S, Niles D  (2001)  Solution-focused brief therapy and the treatment of depression: a pilot study.  Journal of Brief Therapy 1:33-49.  10 clients, all had 6 sess.  9 improved on all measures at 6 mon.

Lee MY, Sebold J, Uken A (2003)  Solution-focused treatment of domestic violence offenders.  Oxford: New York.  90 treated (77 male); few dropouts from 8-sess programme.  48 (+22 partners) traced at 6 mon.  Self-esteem and solution finding better; 16.7% cumulative recidivism over 6 yrs.  Childhood abuse predicts recidivism.

Lee MY, Sebold J, Uken A (2007)  Roles of self determined goals in predicting recidivism in domestic violence offenders.  Research on Social Work Practice 17:30-41.  1996-2004: 127 seen, 88 traced (70 male); completion (7 of 8 sess) 92.8%.  10.3% recidivism.  Agreed goals and specific goals predict more confidence and less recidivism.  Brain injury predicts recidivism; child abuse not found to predict.

Li S, Armstrong MS, Chaim G, Kelly C, Shenfeld J (2007)  Group and Individual Couple Treatment for Substance Abuse Clients: A Pilot Study.  American Journal of Family Therapy 35:221-233.   27 couples: 20 complete: multiple couples group 13/15; individual couples group 7/12; no significant differences between group results.  80% (43) traced at 6 mon: 46% (20) ‘a great deal better’; 49% (21) ‘helped somewhat’.   (selina.li@camh.net)

Macdonald AJ (1994)  Brief therapy in adult psychiatry.  Journal of Family Therapy 16:415-426.  41 cases; 1 yr follow-up.  29 (70%) improved; more success if >4 sess; longstanding problems did less well.  Equal outcome for all social classes; avg 3.7 sess. (macdonald@solutionsdoc.co.uk)

Macdonald AJ (1997)  Brief therapy in adult psychiatry: further outcomes.  Journal of Family Therapy 19:213-222. 36 cases; 1 yr follow-up.  23 (64%) improved; other problems solved in 10 with good outcome and 2 in the other group.  Longstanding problems did less well; equal outcome for all social classes; avg 3.3 sess. 

Macdonald AJ (2005) Brief therapy in adult psychiatry: results from 15 years of practice.  Journal of Family Therapy 27:65-75.  Further 41 cases reported; 1 yr follow-up.  31 (76%) improved; avg 5.02 sess; 20% single sess.  Combined total 118; 83 (70%) improved; avg 4.03 sess; 25% single sess.  Fewer new problems in good outcome group.  Longstanding problems predict less improvement; equal outcome for all social classes. 

McGilton K, Irwin-Robertson H, Boscart V, Spanjevic L (2006)  Communication enhancement: nurse and patient satisfaction outcomes in a complex nursing continuing care facility.  Journal of Advanced  Nursing, 54:35-44.  21 nurses, 16 patients; sft communication enhancement training; 10 wk follow-up.  Nurses felt closer to patients and had higher job satisfaction (statistically significant).  (mcgilton.kathy@torontorehab.on.ca)

Milner J, Jessop D (2003) Domestic violence: narrative and solutions.  Probation Journal 50:127-141.  23 referrals; 20 cases (3 female) completed; individual or family work; 18 month follow-up.  19 (95%) not reoffend. Avg 5 sess.  (judithmilner@tiscali.co.uk)

Milner J, Singleton T (2008)  Domestic violence: solution-focused practice with men and women who are violent.  Journal of Family Therapy 30:27-51.   68 referrals (16 female); avg 4.3 sess; 50 completed programme.  Not reoffended according to multiple sources at minimum 3.5 yr follow-up = 73% good outcome.

Morrison JA, Olivos K, Dominguez G, Gomez D, Lena D (1993)  The application of family systems approaches to school behaviour problems on a school-level discipline board: an outcome study.  Elementary School Guidance & Counselling 27:258-272.  30 with school problems (6 special education); 1-7 sess.  23 improved but 7 relapsed.

Newsome WS (2005) The Impact of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy with At-Risk Junior High School Students.   Children & Schools 87:83-91.  26 preteens; improved social skills after minimum 5 of 8 group sess at 6 wk follow-up.  Classroom behaviour and homework completion had also improved. (snewsome@uic.edu)

Ng Bacon, Provident I (2014) Self-Directed Online Solution-Focused Coaching Used to Reduce Occupational Stress. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. May 2014, 20(5): A102-A103. doi:10.1089/acm.2014.5271.abstract.  18 exp: 4 sess online therapy designed to help health care professionals investigate self-identified problems in their lives. 11 responders post-test: decreased occupational stress, emotional exhaustion, improvement of personal achievement, empathy, energy level, self-confidence and satisfaction in life (p<.05). Significant improvement of self-perceived life situation, p=.02.

Northcott S, Burns K, Simpson A, Hilari, K (2015)  “Living with aphasia the best way I can”: a feasibility study exploring solution focused brief therapy for people with aphasia. Folia Phoniatrica Logopedica, Three men and two women with chronic aphasia took part; age range 40s to 70s.  Improved mood GHQ from mean 4.8 to mean 2.00; improved communicative participation from mean 7.80 to mean 12.20. No change in social network / connectedness.  http://www.karger.com/Journal/Home/224177

Perez Grande MD (1991)  Evaluacion de resultados en terapia sistemica breve (Evaluation of results in brief systemic therapy). Cuadernos de Terapia Familiar (Family Therapy Notebooks18:93-110.  97 cases, 25% children; avg 5 sess. 71% better at end.  6-35 (avg 19) mon telephone follow-up: 81 traced.   13% relapse; 36% other problems better.  More dropout if longstanding problem.

Perkins R, Scarlett G (2008) The effectiveness of single session therapy in child and adolescent mental health. Part 2: an 18-month follow-up study.  Psychology & Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice 81(2):143-56.  Follow-up of 2006 cohort: 152 children, 91 traced.   60.5% 1 sess; 9.7% five or more.  No increase in frequency or severity of symptoms after 18 mon.

Reinehr T, Kleber M, Lass N, Toschke AM (2010)  Body mass index patterns over 5 y in obese children motivated to participate in a 1-y lifestyle intervention: age as a predictor of long-term success. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91:1165-1171. 663 obese children: 6 sessions sf plus nutrition / exercise programme (‘Obeldicks’).  Significant mean change in BMI at 5yr: 0.46; best effect in younger children.  (Several similar studies by same team.) (t.reinehr@kinderklinik-datteln.de).

Roeden JM, Maaskant MA, Bannink FP, Curfs, LMG (2011) Solution-Focused Brief Therapy With People With Mild Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Series. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 8: 247–255. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-1130.2011.00317.x  10 cases with a mild intellectual disability. 6 wk follow-up: improved on quality of life, less maladaptive behavior, goal attainment according to subjects and carers. (j.roeden@baalderborggroep.nl)

Shennan G (2003)  The early response project: a voluntary sector contribution to CAMHS.  Child And Adolescent Mental Health In Primary Care 1:46-50.  558 referrals; 415 families seen.  1-21 sess, avg 2.7.  Telephone follow-up at 6-9 mon: 40 of 72 parents contacted.  62.5% improved; 75% report improved coping ability; avg 2.7 sess.  (guyshennan@sfpractice.co.uk)

Shennan G, Iveson C (2011) From Solution to Description: Practice and Research in Tandem. In Franklin C, Trepper T, Gingerich WJ, McCollum E (eds)  Solution-focused Brief Therapy: A Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice. Oxford University Press: New York 2011.  4 studies.  24 clients, 6 mon-1 yr follow-up: 23 (83%) better, 1 (3%) worse.  39 clients, avg 18 mon follow-up: 31 (80%) better, 2 (5%) worse. 57 clients, ?-3 yr follow-up: 24 (59.7%) improved, 2 (3.5%) worse.  25 clients, 8 mon-16 mon follow-up: ‘best hopes’ achieved by 14 (56%), little 7 (28%), not at all 4 (16%).

Simm R, Iddon J, Barker C (2013) A community pain service solution-focused pain management programme: delivery and preliminary outcome data. British Journal of Pain 7(4): doi: 10.1177/2049463713507910   63 female/22 male; significantly better well-being at 12 mon follow-up but only 14 replies.  (becky.simm@nhs.net)

Simm, R, Iddon J, Barker C (2014) A community pain service solution-focused pain management programme: delivery and preliminary outcome data.  British Journal of Pain 8(1):49-56doi: 10.1177/2049463713507910  2x1hr exercise / 3hr discussion in each of 8 wks.  63 females /  22 males who attended 75% of sessions found significant change at 10 wks for self-efficacy and function and improvements in mental well-being at 12 mon.  

Simon JK, Nelson TS (2007) Solution-Focused Brief Practice With Long-Term Clients In Mental Health Services ‘I Am More Than My Label’.  Haworth Press: New York (p 135-6).  1997-8: 2 clinics, 1 psychodynamic, 1 sf.  781 cases vs 1673; 631 sessions vs 763 per therapist, so greater income from sf clinic. (jsimon14@hvc.rr.com)

Siwilai White Mok (2014) Results of the program to modify the view to focus on finding a solution for patients with schizophrenia who received drug psychoses. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health 25(3): 56-68 (Thailand).  14 non-compliant patients with schizophrenia: 5 x 1 hr program using sf reframing program.  Improved self-confidence, compliance and activities of daily living.

Sommers-Flanagan J, Polanchek S, Zeleke WA, Hood MHE, Shaw SL (2014)  Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Consultations on Parent Stress and Competence. The Family Journal. doi:10.1177/1066480714555696. 45 parents; 2 sess consultation. Significant reductions in parenting stress and increased parenting self-efficacy. (john.sf@mso.umt.edu)

Taylor WF (2013) Effects of SFBT group counseling on generalized anxiety disorder.  (Thesis; Walden University)  30 clients; mean posttest score (M = 11.20) significantly lower than the mean pretest score, p<0.01.

Thompson R, Littrell JM (2000)  Brief counseling for students with learning disabilities.  The School Counselor 2:60-7.  12 students; 2 sess; follow-up 2 wk.  10 achieved 100% of goal.

Vaughn K, Young BC, Webster DC, Thomas MR. A continuum-of-care model for inpatient psychiatric treatment. In Miller SD, Hubble MA, Duncan BL (eds) (1996) Handbook of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco (p99-127). 688 cases before sft model: avg stay 20.2 days; 675 cases after: avg stay 6.6 days.

Walker L, Greening R (2010) Huikahi Restorative Circles: a public health approach for reentry planning. Federal Probation 74(1): 16/23 (70%) not reoffend at 2 yrs.  State 3 yr recidivism is 54.7%. (www.uscourts.gov/FederalCourts/ProbationPretrialServices/FederalProbationJournal/FederalProbationJournal.aspx?doc=/uscourts/FederalCourts/PPS/Fedprob/2010-06/index.html)

Wiseman S (2003)  Brief intervention: reducing the repetition of deliberate self-harm.  Nursing Times 99: 34-36.  First self-harm 40 clients; 1 sess.  Up to 6 mon follow-up: 39 (97%) no repeat; 78% improved on self-scaling.

Young S (1998)  The support group approach to bullying in schools.  Education Psychology in Practice, 14(1): 32-39.  47/50 bullying stopped.   40 (80%) stopped at once; remainder stopped within 5 wk.  None worse.

Young S, Holdorf G (2003)  Using solution-focused brief therapy in referrals for bullying.  Education Psychology in Practice, 19(4): 271-282.  92 cases (26 single session cases excluded from analysis); one quarter from primary schools.  85 (92%) successful; avg 3.4 sess.

Yuyunhyeong (2015) A Research on the Effects of Solution-focused Group Art Therapy on Improvement of Sibling Relationship and Well-being. South Korea Art Psychotherapy Association Article XIV:29.11(1):147-176. www.earticle.net/article.aspx?sn=244197  6 siblings: 10 sess Group Art therapy. Positive effects on sibling relationship, Gentleness, Conflict, Relative status, Competition and the well-being of sibling children.  (Korean)

Ziffer JM, Crawford E, Penney-Wietor J (2007)  The Boomerang Bunch: A School-Based Multifamily Group Approach for Students and Their Families Recovering from Parental Separation and Divorce.  The Journal for Specialists in Group Work 32:154-164.  School counsellors: 5 parents; 8 sess.  Groups for parents, older + younger children.  All improved at 6 mon follow-up interview.  (StrongToGoOn@aol.com)

OTHER RESOURCES

Franklin C, Trepper TS, Gingerich WJ, McCollum EE (eds) ‘Solution-focused Brief Therapy: A Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice’. Oxford University Press: New York 2011.

Klingenstierna C (Sweden; caroline@framtidsfokus.se): randomised controlled study of sft groups for returning unemployed to work.  Faster return to active list and less distress symptoms for persons (n=15+15) with more than 6 months of sick leave than control group.  No significant differences between groups after 5 months follow-up  (Unpublished).

Journal of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: editor Michael Durrant
International Journal of Solution-Focused Practices: editor Caroline Klingenstierna

EBTA homepage: www.ebta.nu  SFT email list: SFT-L@listserv.icors.org
SFBTA: www.sfbta.org   UK Association: www.ukasfp.co.uk      SOLworld: www.solworld.org

Let me know of any errors or omissions.

Dr Alasdair Macdonald, Consultant Psychiatrist, UK