Overbreathing Leaflet


Consultant Psychiatrist in the NHS for 35 years with experience in all aspects of psychiatry including secure care.  My training included psychodynamic, group and systemic psychotherapies and I am a registered trainer and supervisor.  I have been the Medical Director of two Trusts and was Project Director of the Mental Health Institute at St Martin's College in Carlisle.  I am a past office-bearer of the European Brief Therapy Association.  I am Chair of the Dorset Trust for Counselling and Psychotherapy and former Service Director of the Family Counselling Trust in Dorset.

My book ‘Solution focused Therapy: Theory, Research and Practice’ was republished in 2011 and translated into Mandarin.  I am on the editorial board of two journals.  I previously supervised a research group in China.  I am the Scientific Advisor for the Helsinki Psychotherapy Institute.  My annotated bibliography of research literature on this site may be freely copied with acknowledgement.  I am co-author of a vocabulary book for backpackers and business travellers.

I have taught in the USA, South Africa, China, Taiwan, Singapore and Australia as well as several countries in Europe.  I have special experience in the application of solution-focused approaches within mental health and with offenders.   Training workshops include solution-focused therapy, solution-focused approaches to mental health and organisational skills for finding cooperation in the workplace.

Selected publications:

Whyte SF, Macdonald AJ, Naylor GJ, Moody JP (1976)  'Plasma Concentrations of Protriptyline and Clinical Effects in Depressed Women'.  British Journal of Psychiatry, 128:384-9.
Macdonald AJ  (1979)  'Review:  Children and Companion Animals'.  Child: Care, Health and Development, 5:347-358.
Macdonald AJ, Peden NR, Hayton R, Mallinson CN, Roberts D, Wormsley KG  (1981)‘Symptom relief and the placebo effect in the trial of an anti-peptic drug’.  Gut, 22:323-326.
Macdonald AJ  (1984) 'Dreams After Amputation'.  British Journal of Psychiatry, 145:669 (letter).
Macdonald AJ  (1985)  'Review Body Report'.  British Medical Journal, 291:57 (letter).
Macdonald AJ  (1987) 'Consultant-Based Services:  One Man's Experience'.  Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, 11:55-56.
Macdonald AJ  (1990) 'Brief Therapy in a Mental Hospital'.  Context (Association for Family Therapy Newsletter), 6:40-41.
Macdonald AJ  (1992)  'Training and Outcome in Supervised Individual Psychotherapy'. 
British Journal of Psychotherapy, 8:237-266.
Macdonald AJ  (1992)  'Systemic Family Therapy in Adult Psychiatry'.  British Journal of Psychiatry,  160:718 (letter).
Macdonald AJ (1993) 'Protocols for Constipation and Urinary Incontinence'.  International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8:269 (letter).
Macdonald AJ    (1993) 'Clonazepam in Tardive Dyskinesia'.  Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 10:168 (peer reviewed letter).
Macdonald AJ  (1993) 'Assessment of Mental Illness in the Elderly'.  International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8:355-356 (letter).
Macdonald AJ (1993)  'Family Therapy in the Training of General Psychiatrists'.  Psychiatric Bulletin, 17:173 (letter).
Macdonald AJ  (1993) 'Wernicke's Encephalopathy - a missed diagnosis?'  Care of the Elderly, 5:201 (letter).
Macdonald AJ  (1994) 'A paper that changed my practice:  Reversible mental impairment in alcoholics'.  British Medical Journal, 308:678.
Macdonald AJ  (1994) 'Brief Therapy in Adult Psychiatry'.  Journal of Family Therapy, 16:415-426.
Macdonald AJ (1995)  'Eating Disorders'.  Journal of Family Therapy, 17:356 (letter).
Macdonald AJ  (1995) ‘Training and outcome in supervised individual psychotherapy’  British Journal of  Psychotherapy, 12:132 (letter).
Macdonald AJ   (1997) 'Brief Therapy in Adult Psychiatry: Further Outcomes'.  Journal of Family Therapy, 19:213-222.
Macdonald AJ  (1998) ‘Losungsorientierte Kurtzzeittherapie in einer schottische Psychiatrie: Die Erfahrungen von acht Jahren’  In: Eberling W & Vogt-Hillman M (Eds): ‘Kurzgefasst: Zum Stand der losungorientierten Praxis von Europa’. borgmann publishing, Dortmund.
Macdonald AJ  (1999) 'Orphenadrine - presence in patients not using antipsychotic drugs’
British Journal of Psychiatry,  174:565 (letter).
Macdonald AJ  (2000)  ‘Recommended reading for trainees’ Psychiatric Bulletin, 24:154 (letter).
Macdonald AJ  (2001) Invited contribution to: Berg IK and Dolan Y (Eds) ‘Tales of Solutions: a collection of hope-inspiring stories’  Norton: New York.
Macdonald AJ  (2003) ‘Research in solution-focused therapy’  In: O’Connell, Bill (Ed) ‘Handbook of solution-focused therapy’  Sage Publications: London.
Macdonald AJ  (2002) ‘Primary care screening clinic’ Psychiatric Bulletin, 26:357 (letter).
Macdonald AJ, Ross J  (2003) ‘Solution-focused brief therapy in general practice’, Journal of Primary Care Mental Health and Education, 7:68-69.
Macdonald AJ  (2004) ‘Hyperventilation: a curable cause of symptoms of anxiety.  Journal of Primary Care Mental Health and Education, 7:105-108.  (See sidebar for handout.)
Macdonald AJ  (2005) ‘Brief therapy in adult psychiatry: results from 15 years of practice’ Journal of Family Therapy, 27:65-75.
Macdonald AJ  (2005) ‘Thiamine treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in alcoholism’,  Psychiatric Bulletin, 29:233 (letter).
Macdonald AJ  (2005) ‘Input via partners for anxiety and depression in primary care’.  Journal of Primary Care Mental Health and Education, 8:61.
Macdonald AJ  (2005) ‘Voices: an exercise in developing solution focused conversations with the mentally ill.’  Journal of Family Psychotherapy,: 16(1/2):39-42.   Special issue: ‘Education and Training in Solution Focused Brief Therapy’, Nelson TS (ed).  Also published in book form: New York: Haworth Press.
Macdonald AJ  (2006) ‘Personality subtypes and cognitive impairment in anorexia nervosa’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 188: 87-88 (letter).
Macdonald AJ  (2006)  'Does cannabis really cause psychosis?'.  British Medical Journal, 332:303 (letter).
Macdonald AJ (2006)  ‘Solution-focused situation management: finding cooperation quickly’.  In Lueger G and Korn H-P (eds) ‘Solution-focused Management’.  Rainer Hampp Verlag: Munchen und Mering.  Pp 89-98. (Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Solution Focused Practice in Organisations, Vienna)
Macdonald AJ  (2007) ‘Applying solution-focused brief therapy in acute mental health care’.  In: Thomas FN and Nelson T (Eds) Clinical applications of solution-focused brief therapy.  Howarth Press: New York.
Macdonald AJ (2008) ‘Warmup / starting exercise for solution-focused workshops in therapy and management: too many to shake hands?’  in ‘57 SF Activities for Facilitators and Consultants’ P. Rohrig and J. Clarke (eds), Solution Books: Cheltenham, UK  / Managerseminare Verlag: Koln / Bonn.
Bakker JM, Bannink FP, Macdonald AJ (2010) ‘Solution-focused psychiatry.’ Psychiatric Bulletin, 34: 297-300.
Macdonald AJ (2010) ‘Solution focused brief therapy’.  In Nelson-Jones R (ed) ‘Theory and Practice of Counselling and Therapy’ (5th edn).  Sage Publications: London.
Macdonald AJ  (2010) ‘Solution focused brief therapy’.  In Nelson-Jones R (ed) ‘Six Key Approaches to Counselling and Therapy’.  Sage Publications: London.
Macdonald AJ, Popovic M (2010)  ‘100 Useful Words in 37 Languages: The Essential Vocabulary To Travel The World’.  Olympia Publishers: London.
Montagu R, Macdonald AJ  (2010)  ‘A New Initiative In Child And Family Counselling: Dorset Child And Family Counselling Trust’.  Context: Newsletter of Association for Family Therapy, 112: 35-38.
Macdonald AJ (2011) ‘Common questions about solution-focused approaches’.  Interaction, 3: 21-33.
Macdonald AJ (2007; 2011) ‘Solution-focused Therapy: Theory, Research and Practice’ (2nd ed.).  Sage: London.   (Mandarin translation 2011)
Gingerich WJ, Kim J, Stams GJJ, Macdonald AJ (2011)  ‘Current evidence base for solution focused therapy’.  In Franklin C, Trepper TS, Gingerich WJ, McCollum EE (eds) ‘Solution-focused Brief Therapy: A Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice’. Oxford University Press: New York.
Macdonald AJ (2011)  ‘Studies of outcome in solution-focused research since 2007’.  Context: Newsletter of Association for Family Therapy, 118: 31-35.
Macdonald AJ (2012) ‘Mainstream of solution-focused therapy’. In Lewinski A, Szczepkowski J, Switek T ‘Upside down: solution-focused paradigms: revolutions and evolutions.’ Wydawnictwo Edukacyne: Torun, Poland.
Macdonald AJ (2012) ‘Begegnungen mit Steve de Shazer und Insoo Kim Berg’  Essay in book of the same name, Vogt M, Wolf F, Sundman P, Dreesen HN (eds).  Borgmann Publishers: Dortmund.
Macdonald AJ (2013) ‘Solution-Focused Therapy’.  In Reeves A and Dryden W (eds) ‘The Handbook of Individual Therapy’.  Sage Publications: London.
Macdonald AJ (2013) ‘A personal view: solution focused therapy:  the research and the literature.  Where do we go from here?’ Presentation at SFCT Conference, University of Hertfordshire, 19-20 September; published J ournal of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy 1(1): 79-88.
Macdonald AJ (2014) ‘Solution focused brief therapy’.  In Nelson-Jones R (ed) ‘Theory and Practice of Counselling and Therapy’ (6th edn).  Sage Publications: London.
Macdonald AJ (2014) ‘A Humour of Love’ by Robert Montagu (book review).  Context: Newsletter of Association for Family Therapy 138: 47.
Macdonald AJ (2015) Sage Video Counselling and Psychotherapy Collection: four short videos on sf interviewing. Sage Publications: London.
Panayotov P, Macdonald AJ, Strahilov B (2015)  ‘The Strengths and Difficulties of Simple Therapy’.  http://en.solutions-centre-rousse-bulgaria.org/files/the_difficulties_and_benefits_of_being_a_simple_therapist.pdf
Panayotov P (ed Macdonald AJ) (2016) ‘Steps to Success: the good questions diary’.  Pilot for phone app.  Solutions Centre Rousse: Bulgaria.
Macdonald AJ (2016; February) ‘Wise words: interviews with retired consultants’ (ed Dr Kuljit Bhogal).  Royal College of Psychiatrists e-newsletter.
Lloyd HF, Macdonald AJ, Wilson L (2016) ‘Solution-focused brief therapy’ (Chapter 7)  In ‘Psychological therapies and people who have intellectual disabilities’ Beail N (ed).  British Psychological Society: London.
Macdonald AJ (2016)  ‘Paracetamol and risk factors in Newcastle’ (letter).  British Journal of Psychiatry Bulletin 40(5):285.   doi:10.1192/pb.40.5.285
Macdonald AJ (2016) Encounters with Steve de Shazer and Insoo Kim Berg: Inside Stories of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy.  Vogt, Wolf, Sundman, Dreesen (eds) (Review).  Journal of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy 2(1): 67-69.

In press / in preparation:

Panayotov P, Macdonald AJ ‘From Compliance to Adherence: How Language Modes Affect Medication Intake.’
Macdonald AJ ‘Interventions for Prolonged Grief’.  Submitted to Journal of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy.
Luo, H, Macdonald AJ  (2014) ‘Solution-focused training manual’.  Ningbo Publishing House, ZheJiang, China (in preparation).
Macdonald AJ (2018) ‘Solution-focused Therapy: The Story So Far!’ Chapter for book, EBTA conference Sofia 2018 (in preparation).